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Describe in detail two things that surprised you after reading Chapters 23 and 24. Explain why the items you picked surprised you. (Show understanding of what you choose). Choose two entirely different topics that surprised you.


Discuss one item from Chapter 23 and one item from Chapter 24.

History 109 Online Study Guide
Chapter 24 – The New Deal
TERMS
“fireside chats”
FDR’s 1st Inaugural Address
Bank Holiday
Emergency Banking Act
The Economy Act
National Industrial Recovery Act
National Recovery Administration
Schecter Case
Public Works Administration
Civil Works Administration
Tennessee Valley Authority
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Securities and Exchange Commission
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Civilian Conservation Corps
American Liberty League
Dr. Francis Townsend
Sen. Huey P. Long
Agricultural Adjustment Act 1933
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
Second New Deal
Wagner Act
Social Security Act
Works Progress Administration
court-packing plan
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Sit down strikes
Keynes
Frances Perkins
Comic books
Hi 109
History 109 Online Study Guide
Page 2, Continued Chapter 24 – The New Deal
TERMS
Eleanor Roosevelt
Black Cabinet
American Federation of Labor
John Collier
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
“Broker State”
Hi 109
History 109 Online Study Guide
Chapter 23 – The Great Depression
TERMS
Great Crash
“Okies”/Dust Bowl
“Scottsboro Boys”/Scottsboro Case
Dale Carnegie
Frank Capra
Muncie, Indiana
Middletown
Japanese-American Citizen League
American Communist Party
the Hindenburg
Life Magazine
John Dos Passos
Socialist Party of America
Agricultural Marketing Act
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
“Hoovervilles”
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Farm Holiday Association
Bonus army
Election of 1932
Black Tuesday
C:Userscloudconvertserverfiles11913019b44dd682-5ad7-44f6-8a48-b15c46c0bba220190405071252chapter_23_terms_13th.doc
Limits and Legacies of
the New Deal
Chapter 26
WPA Building-San Diego
http://www.co.san-diego.ca.us/dmpr/docs/cacbroch-w.pdf
WPA Posters
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wpaposters/highlight1.html
WPA Travel Posters
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wpaposters/highlight3.html
Farm Security Administration
Photos
http://www.freedomvoices.org/pholist.htm
Limits of the New Deal
Assessment
of Civil Rights Record
▪ Positive
▪ New Deal
programs
▪ Black Cabinet
▪ Eleanor Roosevelt
75,000 Gather at Lincoln
Memorial 4-9-39 Easter Sunday
http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/anderson/lincoln.html
Eleanor
Roosevelt’s
letter of
resignation
from DAR
Eleanor Roosevelt
resignation letter
http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/american_originals/eleanor.html
Legacies of the New
Deal
▪ New Democratic coalition
▪ Continuity of “Progressivism”
▪ Use of Keynesian Economics
▪ Development of South and West
▪ Idea of a “Broker State
Legacies of the New Deal
▪ Reshaped role of the federal
government
▪ Growth and expansion of responsibility
▪ Enhanced the power of the federal government
▪ Strengthened the Democratic Party
▪ Increased expectation of
government
The Depression and
the New Deal
Chapters 25 and 26
Hoover’s Administration
Hoover’s policies





Hoover’s philosophy
Agricultural Marketing Act
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Tariff
Bonus Army
Camp during Bonus March July
1932
Bonus marchers on Capitol steps
Election of 1932
• Hoover
• FDR
Waiting for FDR
First Inaugural Address
• Themes
First Hundred Days
• Fireside Chats
• Innovative laws passed





Banking Act of 1933
Economy Act
Beer Wine Revenue Act
21st amendment ratified 12-5-33
Devaluation of the dollar
Banking
Reform
CCC
Tennessee Valley Authority
FERA
Federal Emergency Relief
Administration
Works Progress Administration
1935
WPA Building-San Diego
http://www.co.san-diego.ca.us/dmpr/docs/cacbroch-w.pdf
WPA Posters
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wpaposters/highlight1.html
WPA Travel Posters
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wpaposters/highlight3.html
Federal Arts Projects
http://www.nara.gov/exhall/newdeal/america1.html
Farm Security Administration
Photos
http://www.freedomvoices.org/pholist.htm
Wagner Act
Social Security
Questions to ask




What was the program or policy?
What did it hope to accomplish?
Did it work? If so, why?
If not, why was it unsuccessful or
limited?
• Philosophy behind the program?
Professor Haber‘s Comments Week 9
President Hoover
President Hoover felt that the American people could solve the problems of the Depression and
accomplish it voluntarily—with volunteer efforts. This policy stance for voluntarism worked
for him during WWI when Hoover was the head of the relief initiative to Belgium. Hoover’s
efforts in supplying food to Belgium were so successful that President Wilson appointed Hoover
head of the U.S. Food Administration. The Food Administration was one of the most successful,
productive and efficient government initiatives during WWI and during the reconstruction in
Europe. The lesson Hoover learned from this was that voluntary efforts worked. This was the
perspective of volunteerism he used to fight the Great Depression.
On the other hand, Herbert Hoover did believe that there was a role for government in fighting
the effects of the Depression. He stepped up spending on public works (more than any others
before him). He also tried to persuade business owners to refrain from cutting wages.
In fact, President Hoover did do more than any other President before him to involve himself in
the economy. See the Brinkley text pages 676-678. Hoover tried quite innovative programs. For
instance there were more public works projects built during his presidency. He tried to rescue
banks and businesses but efforts were minimal and didn’t work.
Bonus Army and Hoover’s philosophy
Hoover’s philosophy was support for a balanced budget and he was against the federal
government accumulating debt.
Americans eventually blamed Hoover for the disastrous economy. We know from recent
biographies that Hoover did “feel the pain” of the public. He even went without sleep and food
often, but he didn’t communicate that he did this to the American people. The reactions of his
administration to the Bonus Army is a good example of Hoover’s inability to reassure the public
and give them hope.
Hoover and his advisers felt the government didn’t have the money (they thought debt would
make the economy fall more) to pay the Bonus marchers their bonuses early. The soldiers’
bonuses were scheduled for payment in 1945. President Hoover handled the crises poorly. It
gave the public the feeling that he didn’t care a bit about the poor veterans. Remember no one
knew how to solve these unprecedented economic problems. FDR learned from Hoover’s
mistakes.
Public Reaction to Hoover
It is interesting that while the public image of Hoover was that of a President who didn’t care
about the suffering of the American people, the reality was he really cared.
Do you know that he resigned from his job as an engineer to feed Belgium in WWI? Also see
this quote from the Hoover archives: “From the day Hoover organized the Belgian Relief in
1914, until his death fifty years later, he never accepted for his private use any payment for
public service. He had reached the highest office in which Herbert Hoover felt he could make the
greatest contribution to his own country.”
http://hoover.archives.gov/education/hooverbio.html
Farm Holiday Association—under Hoover’s administration
This was a grassroots uprising of farmers who were very weak politically at that time. Prices
kept falling and they felt if they withheld their products, prices would go up. Yes it was poorly
organized and chaotic, and it didn’t work as all farmers didn’t comply. However it showed the
depth of the farmers’ grievances.
Causes of the Depression
Credit structure domestic economy
It sounds a bit like what happened in the United States in recent years with the banks and
securities companies. They gave out loans to customers who couldn’t pay them back especially
when home prices feel. The credit structure in the late 1920’s created a “domino
effect”. Farmers couldn’t repay loans, banks were faced with defaults on mortgages plus heavy
investment in the stock market that lost value.
International causes
Congress (with Hoover’s support) passed the Hawley Smoot tariff 1930. It raised tariffs on farm
products with tremendous increase in tariff duties. Our trade partners retaliated with tariffs of
their own. This only heightened the global depression.
Learning from history
Back then there was no regulation of the stock market. It began during the New Deal. What is
similar is the “bubble” of speculation in housing that occurred here in America until 2008. What
happened was that housing prices kept going up and up. People were getting loans that were
interest only or with adjustable rates–they were counting on either selling their home before the
rates adjusted or being able to refinance based on their home increasing in value.
When this didn’t happen people could not pay their mortgages. Also there was a speculative
fever that hit the “homeowner”—advertisers said to prospective buyers, “buy now, move up to
bigger and better” they touted to the public. Testimonies abounded about how people bought a
home, and quickly flipped it to make more money in the sale. There were even courses on how
to do this. It was all based on the belief that home prices would continue to rise and interest rates
would stay low.
The investment industry–banks who bought the mortgages believed this too. Also Fannie Mae
and Freddie Mac (Government agencies) bought pools of closed loans that might have been that
shouldn’t have been originated (loaned to the buyers). These were loans made to people who
really couldn’t afford them. It the past the bank who made the loan held the loan. The financial
industry was packaging the bad loans with good loans. There were people calling for more
regulation of both of them but politicians (mainly Democrats but some Republicans too) said
allow these lending practices as they were giving loans to more people—allowing more people
access to housing. Sounds good but what if those people didn’t have the income to debt service
their mortgages? You know what happened next.
Take a look at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/06/business/06cnd-fannie.html for example
Hoover v. FDR
Hoover did more than any other President before him to intervene to help the economy. FDR ran
a brilliant campaign, promising to “take action now”. He didn’t have a plan but he gave hope to
the American people.
Hoover didn’t realize how much public perception impacted the view of him. He refused to play
to the media (the way FDR would). FDR even had a Presidential photographer to craft a warm
positive public image.
Election of 1932
FDR didn’t give a specific plan for solving the nation’s problems but he promised that he would
actively work to do so. Hoover gave the public the “perception” that he didn’t care, even though
he did care. He was tied though to his ideas of balanced budget and keeping the federal
government with as little debt as possible. His support of higher tariffs on farm products and his
support of raising taxes did not help the economy.
FDR’s First Inaugural
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5057/
The “only thing we have to fear is fear itself”. “Common difficulties are only material”. He will
“take action now”; He will “put people to work”. It is the “primary task”.
He blames the “money changers” states “there must be strict supervision of banking, credits and
investments”. He wants to raise the value of farm products; In foreign affairs he will be “a good
neighbor” and work to balance our trade. In the event Congress doesn’t act he will “ask for broad
executive powers to meet the emergency”.
FDR
Saw the Presidency as a place of moral leadership. He is known to have said, “I want to be a
preacher President”. It has been said by others that it is ironic that it took a crippled President to
get the nation to hope and “walk again”.
AAA
Note how FDR doesn’t display a specific philosophy; however he is more flexible than Hoover in
policies. Also note that public opinion didn’t always support FDR’s programs. People were
starving and the federal government was limiting production and destroying crops and livestock
to raise prices!!
Supreme Court and AAA
The court ruled it was illegal to tax one group–the act was supported by a tax on milling and
processing. The court also ruled these were powers reserved to the states.
See http://www.constitution.org/cmt/dulocracy/chapter8.html
New Deal and Women
The New Deal discriminated against women. The assumption was that men were the head of the
family and the primary bread winner. Even though women were recipients of jobs in New Deal
programs, husband and wife couldn’t be employed by the government in federal civil
service. Women were barred from construction jobs under the WPA and often were delegated to
sewing and domestic work. The CCC was closed to women.
Failure and criticism of NIRA (NRA)
The NRA relied on voluntary efforts of business to keep the codes. The federal government had
a massive public relations campaign asking businesses to support it. There were massive parades
urging businesses and the public to support it. Celebrities such as Will Rogers were also
endorsing it to urge compliance. The NRA shows that FDR was experimenting to see what
would work. It shows his flexibility and that he wasn’t tied to any particular philosophy of how
to handle the economic crisis. Here is an example of a program that was voluntary (like the
Hoover programs).The codes were poorly written, but even if they were written well they were
still voluntary. The NRA relied on “marketing:” to try to get businesses to support the codes. It
didn’t work.
The Press and FDR
It is interesting that the press didn’t start telling all until Vietnam War and Watergate. The press
didn’t report on the seriousness of Woodrow Wilson’s stroke. FDR built up his upper body. He
would lean on the people on either side and swing his hips. It would give the appearance of
walking. They would build ramps so his car could get as close to venues as possible. He wore
long slacks (the style was shorter hems than today’s hem length for men) and they painted his
braces black so they would blend in with his socks.
Limits and Legacies of New Deal
It’s how you look at it–half empty or half full. There were gains but certainly not as much as the
women’s groups or the African American leadership wished. Eleanor Roosevelt though was an
ardent spokesperson not only for placing more women in leadership positions but also for FDR
to move forward in the civil rights arena. When FDR would be criticized for her positions, he
would shrug and say “you know my wife Eleanor.” It was a “good cop, bad cop routine”. The
New Deal brought African-Americans as a voting bloc into the Democratic Party.
I encourage you to visit online both the FDR library and the Hoover library. Both have
wonderful primary sources and information.

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