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I’m writing research paper about conservation of frescoes using microemulsion and bacteria. I need to talk about the mechanisms of both topics and the result (how effective).I tried to focus on Brancacci chapel but I don’t think they used bacteria to conserve arts. so feel free to use different examples of different frescoes. but it has to be frescoes. it has to be 5 pages not including figures and explanation about figures. I already did almost 3 pages mostly focusing on microemulsion. please read the whole paper and change grammatical errors or sentence structures. and also finish up microemulsion and bacteria part. when you cite something, do it in ACS style and leave the link so I can access it later!

Microemulsions and Bacteria in Art Conservation
Conservation of arts has always been one of the most important aspects of art history. Not
only the conservers and artists, but scientists in different areas have been working together to
innovate different methods to conserve artifacts efficiently and effectively since the 17th century.
Among many complex and unique scientific methods, nanotechnology and bacteria are
commonly used in conservation of frescos. In this paper, I will introduce two different types of
methods that are applied for conservation of Renaissance paintings in the Brancacci Chapel: a
microemulsion and the use of bacteria and their enzymes.
The art piece I want to discuss is the Renaissance frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in the
Church of Santa Maria del Carmine located Florence, Italy. This chapel is also known as the
“Sistine Chapel of the early Renaissance,” famous for its painting cycle. Fresco is a type of
technique that is commonly used for mural painting using a mixture of pigments and water on a
thin layer of wet plaster. Felice Brancacci, a Florentine silk merchant who commissioned to build
this chapel in 1386, hired two painters Masolino da Panicale and his associate Masolino to paint
the whole chapel. After Masolino died, Filippino Lippi was hired to complete the unfinished
work. The chapel consists of fifteen different paintings in the narrative order. These paintings are
still admired and highly recognized by many people for their detailed work; especially, they are
highly regarded for its new Renaissance perspectival conception of space. Painters considered
the effects of the light from the outside of the chapel to give volumetrically constructed things
that can give three dimentional feelings.
Figure 1. Schematics of the Brancacci Chapel paintings
Conservation of arts takes two distinct steps: cleaning and consolidation. Cleaning is
considered a transient treatment, which meant to remove things that do not belong to the original
art work without damaging it. The second step is consolidation, which is a durable intervention
to strengthen the durability of artifacts by preventing, remediating, and slowing down further
degradation. Each artifact needs to be treated with different scientific methods depending on the
materials used. Therefore, conservers and scientists have been devising methods to conserve
different art pieces. For frescos, we use “soft” microemulsions micelles to clean the paintings
and use “hard” nanoparticles to consolidate them.
Nanotechnology in conservation was first used by Piero Baligoni, an Italian chemist who
published 250 books and international journals about his innovations in organic and inorganic
colloids. He innovated the use of nanotechnology and colloid science in the mid 1980s while he
was removing beeswax on the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel. Under UV light of the paintings,
scientists discovered that people blew votive canldes which caused beeswax to stick onto the
paintings. Baligoni used “the French microemulsion,” which is using nanosized dodecane
droplets dispersed in an aqueous mixture of ammonium dodecylsulface and 1-pentanol (1-
PeOH). 8. Dodecane. Although other interventions could be used, nanotechnology is preferred to
use because other interventions have higher possibilities to damage the paintings by causing
local heating and mechanical shocks. Therefore, microemulsion is considered safer and more
practical.
Figure #: representation of micelles (A) and oil-in-water microemulsions (B).
Microemulsions work as binary systems that can detach grime from the surface and
confine it. To remove waxes from the frescoes, an amount of organic phase in oil-in-water
microemulsion of dodecane nanodroplets that was contained in microemulsions was less than
10%, which means that it was not harmful and environmentally friendly (1) less compared to
other organic solvents commonly used before, such as aromatic hydrocarbons.
Figure #: schematic picture that shows how microemulsions happens to remove waxes from the
painting.
In figure #, the hydrophobic (tail) part of the microemulsion fluids contact with the wax
and isolate a small part of it to take it away from the painting, The rest of microemulsion fluids
cover the whole thing around it and make it hydrophilic since the head part is hydrpophilic.
There are two diffenrt types of oil-in-water system. The first one is the fluid called XYL,
which consists of solvent insoluble in water (p-xylene) and the second one is called EAPC, a
multi-component fluid consists of two solvents that are more soluble in water such has ethyl
acetate (EA) and propylene carbonate (PC). XYL and EAPC have different structure
EAPC wors with a polymer by didffernt step. 14, 15,
Figure 2: this diagram shows the application device used to remove waxes from frescos in the
Brancacci Chapel. The microemulsion in (A) goes through the flux regulator (B) and the pipette
(C) to reach (D), which is the fresco region. These fluids go through a soaked Japanese paper
with cellulose pulp compress (F) that is located on the cellulose pulp (E). (G) and (H) are
cellulose paper sheet and a polyethylene sheet that covers (F) to prevent evaporation. (I) is a
double sheet that is placed under the frescoes to absorb excess microemulsion.
Spreading of undesirable solvents into the painting was prevented
Figure 3: composition of microemulsion used to remove waxes from the frescos in the Bancacci
Chapel.
Instead of using pure solvents, using these oil-in-water microemulsions, such as
dodecane- and hexadecane-in-water microemulsions, make it possible to prevent dissolved
waxes from adsorbed by the wall. Aqueous phase prevent it from going back to the pores of the
painting. (1) Large surface area of these nanosized droplets also make it possible to remove
waxes more efficiently.
Wax is hydrophobic therefore interaction of oil-in-water microemulsions with low molecular
weight molecules is necessary (7)
5,6,7
Figure 3. Mechanism of the Mayapan and Classcial systems
The metabolic power of bacteria first came from the Polytechnic University of Valencia,
Spain. Pilar Bosch and his research teammates used bacteria to remove inorganic crusts and
animal glues from the works of art. The basic idea is that bacteria produce a host of enzymes.
These enzymes will metabolize both organic and inorganic crusts into other matters, such as
hydro sulfide, carbon dioxide, or molecular nitrogen. A team of microbiologists and conservators
proved that these bacteria do not damage or harm the original works of art. Different kinds of
strains of nitrate-reducing bacteria called Pseudomonas stutzeri were tested. This method is very
innovative and revolutionary.
This method has been validated over the last 10 years because it was also used at the
Camposanto in Pisa in Italy since the Camposanto is covered with frescoes that have been
damaged for last few centuries.
Annotated Bibliography
Barresi, G.; Carlo, E. D.; Trapani, M. R.; Parisi, M. G.; Chille, C.; Mule, M. F.;
Cammarata, M.; Palla, F. Heritage Science 2015, 3 (1).
In this research paper, the author talks about sustainable alternative methods to conserve
and restore arts. It gives detailed information about enzymatic cleaning using bioactive
molecules extracted from Anthozoa, which is a marine invertebrate organism that can be
used to remove protein layers. The author talks about protocols for biocleaning and
microbial growth control that are environmentally friendly and sustainable.
Brazil, R. Modern Chemistry Techniques Save Ancient Art 2019.
In this article, the author Rachel Brazil introduces different techniques that are innovated
to conserve the ancient art. Conservation scientists have been consistently innovating new
methods to conserve and protect arts over time. The author gives a background history
about how people decide to clean the artwork depending on the nature of the material.
Since people in seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries tried variously ineffective
methods to conserve arts, it turned out that they damaged the paintings even more.
Therefore, Piero Baglioni presented microemulsion, a nanotechnology in conservation in
1980s while he was removing beeswax spots from Renaissance frescoes in the Brancacci
Chapel in Florence, Italy. Baglioni found that surface porosity prevents people from
cleaning the paintings with traditional solvent methods. He used the organic phase in the
microemulsion to make 5-15nm sized droplets that will dissolve in the case wax. Solvents
such as pentanol, ethyl acetate. General explanation about ‘swollen micelle’ and also how
to rebuild the artwork that are damaged by pollution and humidity using nanoparticles.
Chelazzi, D.; Giorgi, R.; Baglioni, P. Angewandte Chemie International
Edition 2018, 57 (25), 7296–7303.
In this article, the author introduces different methods and challenges while restoring
artefacts using science. Microemulsions and semi-interpenetrating hydrogels. two
different removal mechanisms. One is the interaction of oil-in-water fluids with low
molecular weight compounds, which was used to remove wax from the Brancacci Chapel
frescos. The other one is the interaction with polymers such as poly(acrylate) and
poly(vinyl acetate) in synthetic coatings. The author introduces two fluids that are used
XYL and EAPC and how they are used in different mechanisms using qualitative
experiments.
GGiorgi, R.; Baglioni, M.; Berti, D.; Baglioni, P. Accounts of Chemical
Research 2010, 43 (6), 695–704.
In this research paper, the author talks about the degradation of polymer resins that were
used in 1960s when people tried to restore the paintings in the Brancacci Chapel in
Florence, Italy. The restoration of a work of art can be composed of two parts: cleaning
and consolidation. The author introduces the microemulsion, also known as “French
micro emulsion” that was formed by nanosized dodecane droplets dispersed in an
aqueous solution of ammonium dodecylsulfate and 1-butanol. The author also introduces
three different systems that are used for polymer removal from wall paintings such as
Classical, Conegliano, and Mayapan and compare them to see different effects and results
they can bring in art conservation.
Kamaria, P. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012.
In this paper, the author discusses how microemulsions can provide various benefits with
their thermodynamic stability and low viscosity. This paper proves benefits that come
from using microemulsion to conserve arts by testing different abilities of
microemulsions, such as viscosity, pH value, solubility in various surfactants and
cosurfactants.
1.
2.
[14] M. Baglioni, R. Giorgi, D. Berti, P. Baglioni, Nanoscale 2012, 4, 42-53.
[15] M. Baglioni, D. Rengstl, D. Berti, M. Bonini, R. Giorgi, P. Baglioni,
Nanoscale 2010, 2, 1723-1732.

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