Complete 2-4 page paper for Foster Innovation Course NO PLAGIARISM

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Assignment: Creativity, Innovation, and Foresight in Action

Creativity, innovation, and foresight are closely connected concepts. This week’s reading from the Cambridge Handbook of Creativity introduced the connections between individual creativity, an organization’s capacity for innovation, and the ability to predict coming trends and other important developments successfully. The systematic approaches to creativity overviewed in this chapter offer a wide variety of means to foster creativity, but the most important knowledge you can gain from this reading is the fact that creativity is not an unexplainable phenomenon or a mysterious process. Rather, creativity can be approached systematically in order to seek out opportunities for innovation, based on foresight.

For this paper, you will analyze how foresight, creativity, and innovation are separate, yet interrelated, concepts. To prepare for this assignment, read “Welcome to a World of Change: Life in the 21st century” (Puccio, et al, 2012) and “Moonshots for Management” (Hamel, 2009). Also consider the tensions between innovation and creativity addressed in the article “Institutionalizing Ethical Innovation in Organizations: An Integrated Causal Model of Moral Innovation Decision Processes”. Use this article as a foundation for evaluating creativity, foresight, and innovation within an ethical model.

Select an organization – it could be your present company or a previous company for which you worked in the past, or an organization in your personal life (professional, fraternal, charitable, social, etc.) – and describe a situation that demonstrates this organization’s foresight, creativity, and innovation within an ethical model. Some examples situations might include the development of a new product or service, a removal of a barrier to productivity, an action to improve employee productivity, a marketing/advertising campaign that induced more sales, a fund raising drive, a membership drive, etc. Your paper should:

  • Provide an analysis of how the organization demonstrated each of these separate concepts (creativity, innovation, and foresight) in an interrelated and ethical way.
  • Next, analyze the specific situation you have presented in light of foresight, creativity, and innovation in one of the following ways:

    • Analyze how the situation you have presented reflects at least three workplace trends discussed by Puccio, et al. (2012) or,
    • Analyze how at least three of the management challenges and goals discussed by Hamel (2009) helped you to understand the situation you presented.

Refer to the Week 1 Individual Reflection rubric for this assignment for specific grading elements and criteria. Your Instructor will use this Rubric to assess your work.


Guidance on Assignment Length

: Your Week 1 Individual Reflection assignment should be 2–4 pages (1–2 pages if single spaced), excluding a title page and references.

Creativity Rising
Creative Thinking and
Creative Problem Solving in the
21st Century
Gerard J. Puccio, Ph.D.
Marie Mance, M.S., M.Ed.
Laura Barbero-Switalski, M.S.
Paul D. Reali, M.S., M.B.A.
Creativity Rising: Creative Thinking & Creative Problem Solving
in the 21st Century
Authors:
Gerard J. Puccio, Marie Mance, Laura Barbero-Switalski, Paul D. Reali
Published by ICSC Press
International Center for Studies in Creativity, Buffalo, NY, U.S.A.
www.buffalostate.edu/creativity/press
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
ICSC Press
International Center for Studies in Creativity
Buffalo State College
1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222
buffalostate.edu/creativity/press
Chapter 1:
Welcome to the World of Change:
Life in the 21st Century
“Everyone grumbles about the weather,” American author and
satirist Mark Twain was credited with saying, “but no one does
anything about it.”
This strikes us as analogous to how many people approach change.
Everyone grumbles about change—“change is inevitable,” “change is
accelerating”—but no one seems to do anything about it. Or, more to the
point, few seem to know what, if anything, they can do about change.
Just deal with it, we are told. Put up an umbrella. Wear a heavy coat.
Whatever your attitude is about change, there is no denying the
force it has on our lives. Consider:
ï‚Ÿ If you are older than 20: when you were growing up, if you were
going to be late coming home, you had to go and find a
telephone, and maybe have change in your pocket to make a
call. Today, you reach into your pocket and pull out a phone
instead of a quarter.
ï‚Ÿ If you are older than 30: you grew up going to the library to get
answers and do research, with a pocketful of dimes for the
photocopy machine. Today, you stay at home and open a web
browser.
ï‚Ÿ If you are older than 40: you wrote college papers longhand and
then carefully typed them. The arrival of white-out was a kind
of miracle. Today, you press the delete key.
ï‚Ÿ If you are older than 50: you grew up with a black-and-white
television (if you had a television), and you had to walk over to
the set to change the channel, of which there were only three.
You watched programs when they were broadcast. Today, you
choose from a hundred channels, and you watch whenever you
want. And you may watch on something that’s not a TV.
 If you are older than 60: you heard the world’s news on the radio,
or when the newspaper hit your porch the next morning.
Today, you can get the news instantly through your computer,
or even on your telephone, the one that’s in your pocket.
Change, like the weather, is a natural part of life. In fact, we would
argue that change is not just inevitable, it is essential to us as humans.
The current thinking is that the primary reason the Cro-Magnon species
survived, while the Neanderthals did not, was their superior ability to
adapt to change.1
Just as we can prepare for the weather—wear the right clothes, erect
a tent for that outdoor wedding, install central air conditioning—so too
can we prepare for change. Preparation requires awareness, which
suggests that we need to recognize the distinctive feature of change in
the 21st century: the increased rate of change.
Change, Accelerating
Here are some recent trends that highlight the accelerating nature of
change.
From industrial age, to knowledge age, to innovation age.
According to business writer Daniel Pink, the affluence of the
developed nations, combined with the movement of much analytical
work to automated methods and low-cost global workers, means that
we have arrived in an age where we must become “a society of
creators.”2 Economist Richard Florida, who coined the name Creative
Class for the workers “whose economic function is to create new ideas,
new technology and/or creative content,” provides the numbers: today,
more than 30% of the U.S. population works in creative jobs; from 1900
through the 1950s, it was less than 10%.3
http://pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com/2010/11/08/neanderthals-less-creative-than-humans/
Pink, D. H. (2006). A whole new mind. New York: Riverhead Books, p. 50.
3 Florida, R. L. (2002). The rise of the creative class. New York: Basic Books, p. 8, p. 74.
1
2
This is not a new or temporary phenomenon. As early as 1991, U.S.
expenditures related to information and communications
technologies—the tools of the innovation age—surpassed those for the
industrial economy, $112 billion to $107 billion.4
More frequent job changes
Children who are in school today can expect to have more than 11
different jobs between the ages of 18 and 42.5 What kinds of jobs?
How’s this for an indication of change: no one knows.
When Forbes looked at jobs of the future, the magazine proclaimed
that in two decades, “your job probably won’t exist, at least not in the
same form.”6 Trend-analyzer Faith Popcorn predicted in 2001 that, in
the foreseeable future, more than half of us will work in jobs that do not
exist yet.7
Shorter and shorter product life-cycles
Product obsolescence comes in many forms, including planned (“it
died”), perceived (“my interest died”), or practical (“if it goes any
slower, I’m going to die”). Whatever the cause, products today are
replaced more rapidly than ever, and industrial redesign, whether for
competitive advantage or because of rapidly changing technologies,
occurs at a much faster pace. According to two studies, products go
through fundamental redesign every 5 to 10 years, while in the
technology the rate of change is much faster, with products undergoing
redesign every 6 to 12 months.8
Consider the difference between the first digital cameras released in
1991 and today’s models—1.3 megapixels and few features, versus
more than 10 megapixels and loaded. Not to mention that before 1990
all cameras used film. Twenty years later, film cameras have all but
disappeared.
Trilling, B. & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, p. 3.
5 Trilling & Fadel, p. 10.
6 Clark, H. (2006). “Jobs of the future.” Forbes.com, http://www.forbes.com/2006/05/20/jobsfuture-work_cx_hc_06work_0523jobs.html, para. 4
7 Popcorn, F. & Hanft, A. (2001). Dictionary of the future. New York: Hyperion.
8 Hunter and Schmidt (1996), Williams and Yang (1999).
4
Greater technological power, smaller size
In 1964, the year in which the last Baby Boomers were born, a
computer chip could hold five transistors. As Gordon Moore predicted
(in what is now known as “Moore’s Law”), this capacity doubles about
every two years. Today, a chip can hold two billion transistors.9 The
guidance computer onboard Apollo 11 in 1969 weighed 70 pounds10
and had less computing power than is in your current mobile phone,
which weighs about four ounces.
Small size leads to ubiquity. Mobile telephone subscriptions in the
U.S. increased from 160 million in 2003 to 270 million in 2008.
Worldwide, the increase was from 1.4 billion to 4 billion.11 And mobile
telephones are no longer just telephones. Most can take photographs
and send text messages; many can send and receive e-mail; and a
rapidly growing number are “smart phones” that run applications from
GPS tracking to games, from e-book readers to restaurant reviews.
Entertainment production and consumption are more democratic
In the entertainment industry control is shifting. Previously, large
corporations determined what was created, how it was distributed, and
where and how it could be consumed. For instance, consider movies.
For the most part, the same corporations that decided which films to
fund also carefully controlled the movement of the film, from first run
in a theater, then onward to the rental market, home sales, and
television. Rare was the independent film that could thrive in that
environment. Today, digital technology allows low-cost production,
and the Internet (e.g., YouTube and Hulu) provides the ability to
immediately distribute.
The same applies to music, where once the large labels controlled
everything, including the copyrights to the music. Today, an
independent artist can have an inexpensive home recording studio, and
without the hand of a record label have her work available on iTunes,
http://www.intel.com/technology/architecture-silicon/2billion.htm
http://history.nasa.gov/computers/Ch2-5.html
11 http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ICTEYE/Indicators/Indicators.aspx
9
10
right next to Beyonce and Bruce Springsteen—and retaining all rights to
her work.
In book publishing, where the industry gatekeepers had a
monopoly on what was published, print-on-demand technology allows
anyone to produce a high-quality book in just a few days.12
These and similar technological and societal changes are not
impressive curiosities, like, say, space travel, that do not seem to affect
us individually. Change has great impact on our day-to-day lives. (And
pretty soon, you’ll be able to go into space as well.)13
In the face of change we have these options: ignore it, grow with it,
or drive it. We certainly do not recommend you stick your head in the
sand; the weather is changing, and you’re bound to get wet, windblown, possibly struck by lightning. So, no: ignoring is not really an
option. That leaves the choice to grow with change or to drive change—
and the good news is, it’s both of those. In some arenas, you will roll
with the changes, and in others, you will be the driving force.
Here’s an example. Climate change (our weather metaphor writ
large) is not something that most of us have the power to address on a
global scale, but we can choose to cooperate, for instance, by electing
officials who see things our way. But on a personal and local level, we
can take initiative, perhaps by forming an organization that takes action
in our community, and by changing our own habits.
To live a healthy, productive life in the 21st century requires an
attitude and skill set that opens us up to change. We believe that
creativity and creative thinking, specifically, are the adaptive skills that
will enable us to grow with change, as well as to drive it.
Problems and Approaches to Problems
The 21st century calls on us to participate. To get a feel for the
participation level required, let’s look through a particular lens: the
types of problems we might be called on to address, and the ways in
which we might respond.
12
13
Writing and editing time not included. Your mileage may vary.
Virgin Galactic is booking seats for sub-orbital space flights: http://www.virgingalactic.com.
Problems can be sorted into two basic categories:
ï‚Ÿ
ï‚Ÿ
algorithmic: problems with a known solution, or an established
process that leads to a single right answer
heuristic: problems without a known solution (that is, the
solution must be created)
We can approach these problems in two ways:
ï‚Ÿ
ï‚Ÿ
proactive: before a problem arises
reactive: after a problem occurs
By crossing the nature of the problem (algorithmic and heuristic)
with the approach to the problem (proactive and reactive), we end up
with four different situations: formulaic problems, maintenance issues,
predicaments, and opportunities. Two of these situations can be
resolved through known solutions, and therefore might be considered
straightforward, while two are more complex, and therefore cry out for
creative thinking (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Types of Problems
Source: © 2005 Puccio, Murdock, and Mance. Reprinted with permission.
Formulaic problems (Algorithmic, Reactive)
When reacting to a change that has a known solution, we simply
implement it; there is no need for creative thinking. If you get a flat tire,
you replace it with your spare or call your automobile club. If you are
on the golf course and it begins to rain, you pull out the umbrella and
waterproof pullover you keep in your bag. In an operating room, a
surgeon uses a known method for removing a gall bladder, and if a
problem arises, there is a known method for responding to it.
For formulaic problems, there is no need to invent a solution,
especially when the existing approach works perfectly well. (Which,
perhaps, explains the popularity of duct tape.)
Maintenance issues (Algorithmic, Proactive)
There are changes we can anticipate, and we respond proactively to
prevent them. The solution is known, and we need only to implement
it. To protect the engine in your car, you change the oil every 5,000
miles. To keep your feet dry when it rains on the golf course, you apply
waterproofing spray to your shoes at the beginning of the season.
Relationships deteriorate if we do not tend to them, but we don’t need
to re-imagine the rules: we buy gifts for our significant others, listen to
them, and share meaningful time—all well-known approaches.
For maintenance issues we merely need to stay alert and anticipate
the appropriate time to implement known procedures that have proven
effective in the past. And if we do not know the proactive steps we can
take, we have only to seek out the answers from a reliable source.
(Which, perhaps, explains the popularity of Dr. Phil.)
Predicaments (Heuristic, Reactive)
Change sometimes occurs for which we do not have a ready
answer—and known solutions do not seem to fit. Your competitor
introduces a breakthrough product that makes yours obsolete. Your
son’s performance in school suddenly falls, but you are not sure why.
You lose your job without warning. The newness of the situation and
its unique conditions render any known approaches ineffective.
What is the solution when there is no solution? We’re glad you
asked: you apply creative thinking, which helps you to create a new
solution path.
Opportunities (Heuristic, Proactive)
With change comes opportunity. Not all problems are negative; a
problem is any puzzle in search of a solution (Sudoku, anyone?) The
“problem” here is to identify the future opportunity, and to find a way
to get there.
Opportunities sometimes present themselves to us. ”Look! Here I am!
Now what?” We can take this stimulus and imagine what might be—or
not. An adhesive that wouldn’t adhere led to an opportunity known as
the Post-it note. A chocolate bar that melted in a scientist’s pocket led to
the microwave oven. Boredom while playing Scrabble led to the
invention of a new, fast-paced word game called Bananagrams that has
sold millions.14 (Don’t get us wrong, we love Scrabble. But imagine how
many snail-paced Scrabble sessions did not lead to the invention of an
award-winning word game.)
Other opportunities require that an individual or organization
understand the present situation and trends as a launching point for
new opportunities. The existence of cassette tapes—music in a small
format—led to the creation of the Sony Walkman. Same industry, years
later, the existence of digital data—music in an electronic format—led
to the creation of MP3 players such as the Apple iPod.
All creative-thinking efforts start as a response to a situation. In
some cases, you are reacting to a predicament that has presented itself,
such as the newspaper companies that are trying to survive in a world
in which people are increasingly getting their news through the
internet. In other cases, you see an opportunity emerging, such as when
Amazon.com recognized a future in digital books and released the
Kindle e-book reader. Note that they did not release the first e-book
reader, and they did not choose to simply sell e-books; instead, they did
14

something unprecedented for the company: the created their own
product.
We intentionally chose how the digital world is impacting
newspapers and booksellers to make this point: that the same general
circumstances can serve as a predicament for some, while an
opportunity for others. In this instance, the movement to digital sources
seems to be helping some while harming others. But is that a matter of
fact or a matter of perception? Consider: people are reading more digital
content and less printed content. In the book world, that translates to
people buying more e-books and fewer printed books. In the
newspaper world, it means that more people are reading the news
online, and fewer are paying to subscribe to the printed paper. Here’s
the point: Amazon chose to see this as an opportunity, while the
newspaper industry chose to see this as a predicament. (And if that
were not a clear enough of the pace of change, here’s another: the
dedicated e-book reader was quickly challenged by tablets such as the
Apple iPad, which are e-book readers and much more.)
When facing a predicament or an opportunity, it is an awareness of
the situation that serves as a catalyst to creative thinking. In the case of
predicaments, lack of awareness may result in a catastrophic situation;
eventually the problem cannot be ignored. In the case of opportunities,
lack of awareness means missing out. How many times have the
leaders of a company thought, “Why didn’t we think of that!”
Amazon’s bookselling competitors now have their own e-book readers,
but they were reactive, not proactive, and they are now far, far behind
in that race.
Creating change is proactively looking for places to bring about
new solutions and approaches. For example, climate change (since we
can’t seem to resist talking about the weather) is an unknown realm—
we don’t know enough about what’s coming to provide an algorithmic
response—but that means it is an extraordinary creative opportunity.
And there are many more. Face the fronts that are approaching—an
aging population, a future oil shortage, ubiquitous high-speed live
video streaming, and others—and ask: what opportunities do they
create? Again, creative thinking is the way to exploit these
opportunities.
Moving Forward
When we consider the rapidly changing 21st century, we find
ourselves on the border between two worlds: one we recognize, and
one we do not. Certainly, much of what is to come is within our
experience. For those issues, we know the correct responses; we know
what will work. But there is much ahead that is new and unknowable.
For those many situations, there is one common denominator: human
creativity.
Change originates in creative thought. Creativity is a unique human
characteristic that allows us to better respond to external changes, such
as technological advances and social developments. Further, creativity
allows us to imagine and then to create the kind of world we will live
and work in—that is, to initiate change. To make our own weather.

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