Discussion board based on case study 3: Issues in K-12 Education Case Study

Description

1- What insights did you gain as you completed and submitted a critical analysis of a case study in Assignment 1?

2- As you reread the case study and read and reflect on your Assignment 1 submission, consider your own position on the issue posed in the case study.


Assuming


and supporting positions on

issues

in fields related to education is important for a leader in education, but your responsibility extends beyond this. You must also be able to communicate your position to others. In addition, you must know how to listen to other individuals’ perspectives and participate in a dialogue about the issue.




Case Study 3:




Issues in K-12 Education Case Study and more info is attached

Issues in K-12 Education Case Study
Scenario
Your state is considering a required set of education standards that all schools
must adopt. You have been nominated to serve on the statewide committee to
inform the legislature as to which standards, if any, should be adopted. You will
have the opportunity to take a stand on the following issue. Does a set of
required standards improve or limit education for ALL students (e.g., general
education students, special education, English language learners, gifted
learners) in state schools?
Consider the following questions: How can standards be implemented to improve
the quality of education for ALL students in all levels and types of classroom
(e.g., general education, special education, vocational)? Is it more effective to
adopt district standards, state-specific standards, or national standards?
Once you decide which standards to adopt, what materials, supports and training
will be needed to implement them? How do different stakeholders (e.g., policy
makers, government leaders, principals, teachers with various specialties and
points of view, students, parents) feel about the issue of standards adoption and
implementation?
Stakeholders
The State Department of Education, school administrators, teachers, students,
parents, educational specialists, politicians, business leaders, employers,
advocacy groups, and the community at large.
Document Set 1
•
Document 1: A brief overview of the standards-based movement with
information synthesized from multiple authentic sources
•
Document 2: Statistics and quantitative data that demonstrates inequality
and falling international performance; the data focuses on literacy,
science, and math scores, as well as the importance of education on
lifetime earnings
This document is pieced together from a variety of authentic documents
•
Document 3: An authentic document that explores the function of
technology in education, and non-traditional settings for K-12 education
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 1 of 2
•
Document 4: An authentic document that introduces new guidelines for
education reform that will prepare all public school students for college or
a career
Document Set 2
•
Document 5: A simulated editorial from a school administrator detailing
concerns and issues with implementation of the Common Core State
Standards
•
Document 6: A simulated magazine article that illustrates some the issues
regarding a set of uniform standards and expectations for English
Language Learners
•
Document 7: A simulated blog post with relevant comments about the
concern that a common set of standards might exclude such disciplines as
art and music
•
Document 8: Simulated blog posts about the Common Core State
Standards and special education
NOTES: Common Core is arguably one of the most pressing and controversial
issues in K-12 education. The goal of this case study is to have students
consider the various stakeholders involved, and take a position on both the broad
issue of standards-based education and one or more subtopics that fall under
this umbrella.
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 2 of 2
Issues in K-12 Education Case Study
Document 3
This is an authentic document from United States Department of Education. It explains
the role of technology in education and explores non-traditional settings for K-12
education. A common set of standards would likely include some form of digital literacy,
either in performing specific tasks while utilizing technology or measuring student
achievement. Consider the function of technology while debating the use of standards in
education.
Use of Technology in Teaching and Learning
Technology ushers in fundamental structural changes that can be integral to achieving
significant improvements in productivity. Used to support both teaching and learning,
technology infuses classrooms with digital learning tools, such as computers and hand
held devices; expands course offerings, experiences, and learning materials; supports
learning 24 hours a day, 7 days a week; builds 21st century skills; increases student
engagement and motivation; and accelerates learning. Technology also has the power
to transform teaching by ushering in a new model of connected teaching. This model
links teachers to their students and to professional content, resources, and systems to
help them improve their own instruction and personalize learning.
Online learning opportunities and the use of open educational resources and other
technologies can increase educational productivity by accelerating the rate of learning;
reducing costs associated with instructional materials or program delivery; and better
utilizing teacher time.
The links on this page are provided for the user’s convenience and are not an
endorsement. See full disclaimer.
Virtual or online learning: 48 states and the District of Columbia currently support
online learning opportunities that range from supplementing classroom instruction on an
occasional basis to enrolling students in full-time programs. These opportunities include
dual enrollment, credit recovery, and summer school programs, and can make courses
such as Advanced Placement and honors, or remediation classes available to students.
Both core subjects and electives can be taken online, many supported by online
learning materials. While some online schools or programs are homegrown, many
others contract with private providers or other states to provide online learning
opportunities.
Full-time online schools: The following online or virtual schools enroll students on a
full-time basis. Students enrolled in these schools are not attending a bricks and mortar
school; instead they receive all of their instruction and earn all of their credits through
the online school.
State operated
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 1 of 6
•
•
•
The Florida Virtual School – An online school that provides full-time learning
opportunities to students in grades K-12. Districts can also work with Florida
Virtual School to provide blended learning opportunities to students by enabling
them to access online courses from school sites. Additional link here.
Utah Electronic High School – An 18-year-old online high school providing a
range of courses to students year round. The school can award diplomas to
students who are home-schooled, have dropped out, or are ineligible to graduate
from a traditional high school for specific reasons.
North Carolina Virtual Public School – An online high school offering 120 courses
to students both during and after the school day. The courses offered include
Advanced Placement and honors courses, world languages, electives, credit
recovery, and online college courses. The school also provides test preparation
and career planning services to students.
District operated
•
•
•
Karval Online Education – A public K-12 online school for Colorado residents that
provides a free computer for the family to use while the student is enrolled and
provides reimbursement opportunities to offset Internet and other educational
expenses. Dual credit courses are available to juniors and seniors.
Campbell County Virtual School – This school serves Wyoming students in
grades K-6. Families of enrolled students are loaned a computer and receive
subsidized Internet access, as well as materials including CDs, videos,
instructional materials, and hands-on tools and resources to complement the
interactive online elements of the program.
Salem-Keizer Online – This online Oregon high school is an accredited program
of Roberts High School in the Salem-Keizer Public School District in Oregon. The
school provides 24/7 learning opportunities to students living within the
boundaries of the school district and who are not enrolled in their neighborhood
public school. Tuition is only required for students enrolled in summer school
courses.
Charter operated
•
Guided Online Academic Learning Academy – An online public charter high
school in Colorado for students ages 14-21. The Academy offers more than 200
courses to students as well as a variety of support services, activities to support
student-to-student interactions, and drop-in centers to facilitate enrollment,
counseling, assessments, and other services.
Blended learning: Blended learning opportunities incorporate both face-to-face and
online learning opportunities. The degree to which online learning takes place, and the
way it is integrated into the curriculum, can vary across schools. The strategy of
blending online learning with school-based instruction is often utilized to accommodate
students’ diverse learning styles and to enable them to work before or after school in
ways that are not possible with full-time conventional classroom instruction. Online
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 2 of 6
learning has the potential to improve educational productivity by accelerating the rate of
learning, taking advantage of learning time outside of school hours, reducing the cost of
instructional materials, and better utilizing teacher time. These strategies can be
particularly useful in rural areas where blended or online learning can help teachers and
students in remote areas overcome distance.
State operated
•
Michigan Virtual School – Michigan’s students are able to take online classes
and access online learning tools from their middle and high schools via this
virtual school. Michigan Virtual also provides full-time learning opportunities to
middle and high school students. Districts in the state work with the virtual school
to grant course credit and diplomas to students.
District operated
•
•
Walled Lake Consolidated School District – This Michigan district’s online
summer school credit recovery program was expanded to include online learning
opportunities during the school year. Students can now enroll in up to two online
courses each semester while continuing to attend school for at least four hours a
day. Eleventh and twelfth graders may also choose to enroll concurrently in
postsecondary courses via a partnership with a local community college. The
credit recovery program reduced per-student costs by 57 percent and the district
estimates that by offering two online courses during the school year it has been
able to save $517 per student on instructional costs.
Riverside Virtual School – This school makes interactive courses available to
students in Southern California and to other students in rural schools in the state.
Students in grades 6-12, including those who are homeschooled, may enroll fulltime.
School operated
•
•
•
San Francisco Flex Academy – This high school is a five-days-a-week hybrid
school that provides an online curriculum that personalizes learning and enables
students to move through courses at their own pace. These online courses are
taken at the school site and are supported by credentialed teachers.
Rocketship – This elementary charter school network in California is a hybrid
school model. Each day, students attend the Learning Lab where they use
computers to support their individual learning needs. These Labs do not require
certified teachers, enabling Rocketship to reinvest the savings in training,
Response to Intervention, higher teacher salaries, facilities, and academic deans.
While students are in the Lab, teachers are engaging in planning.
Carpe Diem Collegiate High School – Carpe Diem is a hybrid school in Arizona
that offers computer-assisted instruction and onsite teacher facilitators. This
model enables students to progress as they demonstrate mastery.
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 3 of 6
•
iPrep Academy – This Miami-Dade County Public School offers a teacherfacilitated virtual curriculum to 11th graders. Its motto is “learn anytime, anywhere
at” and at the students’ own pace. The curriculum includes Advanced Placement
and honors courses, distance learning opportunities that enable students to
engage with their peers from around the world, and applies real word
experiences to learning.
Open educational resources: Open educational resources are teaching, learning, and
research resources that reside in the public domain and are freely available to anyone
over the Web. They are an important element of an infrastructure for learning and range
from podcasts to digital libraries to textbooks and games. It is critical to ensure that
open educational resources meet standards of quality, integrity, and accuracy—as with
any other educational resource—and that they are accessible to students with
disabilities.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Open High School of Utah – This school uses open educational resources to
create an open source curriculum. To create this curriculum, teachers gather and
sort through open source materials, align them with state standards, and modify
the materials to meet student needs.
CK-12 – CK-12 FlexBooks are customizable, standards-aligned, digital textbooks
for grades K-12. They are intended to provide high-quality educational content
that will serve both as core text and provide an adaptive environment for
learning.
Leadership Public Schools (LPS) – In each of the four LPS schools, teachers
work together to utilize open-source materials to meet the specific learning needs
of their students. Through a partnership with CK-12, LPS has developed College
Access Readers, a series of online books with literacy supports embedded in
them to meet the individual needs of students, from advanced to underperforming students.
Khan Academy – The Khan Academy is a not-for-profit organization providing
digital learning resources, including an extensive video library, practice
exercises, and assessments. These resources focus on K-12 math and science
topics such as biology, chemistry, and physics, and include resources on the
humanities, finance, and history.
Mooresville Graded School District – This North Carolina district launched a
Digital Conversion Initiative to promote the use of technology to improve teaching
and learning. In addition to the use of laptop computers and other technologies
as instructional tools, the Initiative led to a shift to digital textbooks which are
aligned to the state’s standards.
Vail Unified School District – This Arizona district has replaced textbooks with a
digital learning environment that enables every school in the district to take
advantage of an online tool to create digital textbooks and support effective
teaching.
Use digital resources well: Schools can use digital resources in a variety of ways to
support teaching and learning. Electronic grade books, digital portfolios, learning
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 4 of 6
games, and real-time feedback on teacher and student performance, are a few ways
that technology can be utilized to power learning.
•
•
•
High Tech High – High Tech High (HTH) is a network of eleven California charter
schools offering project-based learning opportunities to students in grades K-12.
HTH links technical and academic studies and focuses on personalization and
the connection of learning to the real word. To support student learning and
share the results of project-based learning, HTH makes a wealth of resources
available online, including teacher and student portfolios, videos, lessons, and
other resources.
New Technology High School – At this California school, student work is
assessed across classes and grades, and feedback is made available to
students via online grade books. These grade books are continually updated so
that students can see how they are doing not only in each course, but also on
each of their learning outcomes, averaged across all their courses. Electronic
learning portfolios contain examples of students’ work and associated
evaluations across all classes and grades. New Tech High is part of the national
New Tech Network.
Quest to Learn – This school, located in New York, utilizes games and other
forms of digital media to provide students with a curriculum that is design-led and
inquiry-based. The goal of this model is to use education technologies to support
students in becoming active problem solvers and critical thinkers, and to provide
students with constant feedback on their achievement.
Additional resources:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology, National
Education Technology Plan 2010, U.S. Department of Education
A National Primer on K-12 Online Learning, iNACOL
The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning, Innosight Institute
The Technology Factor: Nine Keys to Student Achievement and CostEffectiveness, Project RED
Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A meta-analysis and
review of online learning studies, U.S. Department of Education
Florida Virtual School: Building the first statewide, Internet-based public high
school, Innosight
School of One – This math-based program for students in grades six through
eight operates in three New York City middle schools. School of One uses
technology to develop a unique learning path for each student and to provide
individualized and differentiated instruction. The program uses data from student
assessments to identify the skills that each student needs to work on. Inputs from
teachers and from students provide information about how each student learns
best. A computer algorithm uses the information about each student’s
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 5 of 6
demonstrated mathematics skills and his or her learning preferences to generate
individual “playlists” of appropriate learning activities.
Reference
United States Department of Education. (2014). Use of technology in teaching and
learning. Retrieved from: https://www.ed.gov/oii-news/use-technology-teaching-andlearning
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 6 of 6
Issues in K-12 Education Case Study
Document 1
Standards-Based Education
This brief is an overview of the standards-based movement with information synthesized
from multiple authentic sources.
What are educational standards?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Educational standards are written descriptions of the knowledge and skills
students should attain.
Standards are descriptions of demonstrable behaviors.
Standards include both knowledge (such as knowledge of certain facts) and skills
(such as the ability to perform mathematical operations or evaluate texts
according to specific criteria).
Standards should be evidence-based. They should be grounded in research and
professional knowledge.
Standards should apply to all learners.
Standards are not a curriculum. While standards do outline content as well as
skills, they do so in succinct ways. It is up to educators to define the curriculum
that will lead students to master the standards.
Standards are not instructional techniques. Standards tell teachers where to
head, not how to get there.
What are standards and how are they used to create educational goals?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Standards are a clear roadmap for education. Without standards, individual
efforts are disorganized and inefficient.
Standards can provide coherence and consistency across classrooms, schools,
districts, and states. In addition, teachers can build off previous materials and
goals.
Standards provide clear targets for improvement.
Standards enable educators to prioritize. The possible realm of teachable content
is infinite. Standards establish a consensus on what is most essential to teach.
This allows teachers to explore topics in depth, as opposed to merely scratching
the surface.
Standards embody the latest research in an actionable form; thus, they enable
leading-edge understandings to percolate to every level of education.
Standards provide teachers, students, and families with clear, shared
understandings of what is expected of teachers and learners.
Standards are a key tool of educational reform.
Standards are a great tool for cross-disciplinary learning. Teachers from different
subject areas can work together to achieve common education goals.
What are some of the factors related to the development and implementation of
standards?
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 1 of 5
•
•
•
•
•
Standards can be created at any level of education: local, state, national, or even
international. A variety of stakeholders should be involved in the creation
process, including teachers, administrators, and education experts.
In general, the process of creating new standards involves a balance between
maintaining coherence with the traditions of the past while breaking new ground,
based on changes in society’s needs and new research into learning.
Achieving community buy-in is essential in order for the standards to be
successfully incorporated into learning.
Once standards are adopted, changes in instruction must follow.
Assessment is a tool for determining progress in relation to standards, as well as
a formative and summative tool.
What is controversial about standards-based education?
The adoption of new standards can lead to controversy, including points such as:
•
•
•
•
•
Process: Who developed the standards? What research was used? Did the
public have the chance to weigh in? Who has the right to impose standards?
Content: Are the standards too rigorous? Not rigorous enough? Clearly written?
Applicable to all learners? Fair?
Funding: Who will fund the implementation and assessment of standards?
Assessment: How will standards be used in high-stakes assessment and how will
these assessments impact our schools and students?
Gaps: What happens when certain subjects are not addressed by standards?
Some educators believe that standards leave out important aspects of education
and thus limit curriculum.
A Brief History of Standards
It is generally agreed in most endeavors that it is impossible to achieve success without
first identifying clear goals. In the field of medicine, for example, experts evaluate the
various tests and interventions used to diagnose and treat specific conditions and then
make recommendations of what constitutes best practice. Business leaders identify a
wide range of quantifiable goals, from increasing profit margins to improving
environmental sustainability. Educational standards define the skills and knowledge that
students are expected to learn and that schools are expected to teach.
The standards-based movement in education has been in existence for decades. In
1980, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics published a revolutionary
document titled Agenda for Action: Recommendations for School Mathematics of the
1980s (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2014). The goal was to provide
schools with a “clear-cut and carefully reasoned sense of direction” based on “an
extensive survey of the opinions of many sectors of society.” The document contained a
list of essential mathematical skills and the caution that the “identification of basic skills
in mathematics is a dynamic process and should be continually updated to reflect new
and changing needs.”
In 1983, the National Commission on Excellence in Education released a report titled A
Nation at Risk, which claimed that falling educational performance threatened the United
States’ standing in the world. In response to the report’s recommendation for stronger
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 2 of 5
educational standards, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards was
established. Its goal was to establish an internal mechanism whereby the teaching
profession would define accomplished practice in standards documents and then use
the standards to assess and recognize accomplished practitioners. The goal was to
have members of the teaching profession rather than government bureaucrats establish
standards and oversee licensing, and to focus on the highest level of teaching rather
than the minimal competency required for certification.
By the early 1990s, most states were engaged in defining standards. The content,
structure, and rigor of the standards that emerged varied widely, as did the process
through which the standards were developed. Some states, such as Vermont, initiated
broad-based efforts which involved members of the public and teachers. Other states,
such as California, relied more on the expertise of leading educators. In 1997, the
Individuals with Disabilities Act was reauthorized, and under the reauthorization, states
and districts were required to set goals for special-education students that were aligned
with state standards for other students (Olson, 2004).
However, at the start of the new millennium, there was widespread concern over uneven
educational attainment in the United States, most specifically the achievement gap that
existed between minority students and their non-minority peers. President George Bush
sent a blueprint for comprehensive education reform titled No Child Left Behind to
Congress in January of 2001 and it was signed into law the following year. NCLB
created an accountability system for schools based on expectations of “adequate yearly
progress” that would be determined through regular assessments in English language
arts and mathematics. Compliance with the law was mandatory, but states were allowed
to develop their own standards and assessments.
Under NCLB, accountability was tied to student performance in two subjects: reading
and math. Many states then focused standards development and instruction on these
two subject areas. The No Child Left Behind act held states legally accountable for
ensuring that the same minimum percentage of special-education students performed at
the proficient level on state assessments as other students (Olson, 2004).
Because each state could set its own standards under NCLB, there was concern that
some states could create easily “passable” standards. Therefore, each state’s results
were compared against a national benchmark called NAEP.
Nearly 10 years later, a new standards initiative called the Common Core State
Standards (CCSS) was underway. This time, the goal was to create “high standards that
are consistent across states.” Under the auspices of the National Governors Association
and the Council of Chief State School Officers, English language arts and mathematics
standards were developed and published in 2010. The Council for Exceptional Children
and other national disability organizations contributed to a statement within the
introduction on how the standards should be implemented for students with
exceptionalities (Council for Exceptional Children, 2014). The purpose was to provide
states with a shared set of goals and expectations specifying the knowledge students
need to become college and career ready. The standards would allow students and
educators throughout the country to collaborate based on a common set of
understandings. Teachers would still have the freedom “to devise lesson plans and tailor
instruction to the individual needs of the students in their classrooms.” Federal funding
enticed the majority of states to add the standards and the corresponding assessments.
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 3 of 5
Pushback against the CCSS developed along many fronts, for reasons ranging from a
perceived federal intrusion into the state responsibility for education, to the belief that
educational reform should focus more on social issues such as poverty (ASCD, 2013). In
2014, Indiana became the first state to back off the CCSS in favor of state-developed
standards (Peralta, 2014).
References
American College of Physicians. (2014). ACP best practice advice. Retrieved from
http://www.acponline.org/clinical_information/guidelines/best_practice
ASCD. (2013, February 25). ASCD and the Common Core State Standards political
pushback on the Common Core. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/common-core/coreconnection/02-25-13-political-pushback-on-the-common-core.aspx
Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2014). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved
from http://www.corestandards.org/resources/frequently-asked-questions
Consortium for Policy Research in Education. (1993). Developing content standards:
Creating a process for change. Retrieved from
http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/CPRE/rb10stan.html
Council for Exceptional Children. (2014). K-12 Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
for the instruction of students. Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org/Special-EdTopics/Specialty-Areas/Commom-Core-State-Standards
Dillon, S. (2006, March 26). Schools cut back subjects to push reading and math. The
New York Times. Retrieved from

Frontline. (2014). The new rules. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved from
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/schools/nochild/nclb.html
The National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2013). Reading framework for the
2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress. Retrieved from
http://www.nagb.org/content/nagb/assets/documents/publications/frameworks/reading2013-framework.pdf
National Center for Education Statistics. (2005, August 10). Important aspects of No
Child Left Behind relevant to NAEP. Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nclb.asp
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2014). Agenda for action: Basic skills.
Retrieved from http://www.nctm.org/standards/content.aspx?id=17280
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 4 of 5
Olson, L. (2004, January 8). Enveloping expectations. Education Week. Retrieved from
http://www.edweek.org/media/ew/qc/archives/QC04full.pdf
Peralta, E. (2014, March 24). Indiana becomes first state to back out of Common Core.
National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwoway/2014/03/24/293894857/indiana-becomes-first-state-to-back-out-of-common-core
Public Education Network and National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education.
(2004). Standards and assessment. Retrieved from
http://www.ncpie.org/nclbaction/standards_assessment.html
United States Department of Education. (2003). Fact sheet on the major provisions of
the conference report to H.R. 1, the No Child Left Behind Act. Retrieved from
http://www2.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/factsheet.html
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 5 of 5
Issues in K-12 Education Case Study
Document 2
The following report highlights quantitative data measuring various educational outcomes
related to K-12 education. The data comes from authentic sources including the Labor of
Bureau Statistics, the National Assessment of Education Progress, and the Program for
International Student Assessment.
The information in the report is outlined as follows:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Educational Attainment
State Profiles
Nation’s Report Cards
International Benchmark Results
Socioeconomic Effects on Testing
Page 1 of 20
A. Educational Attainment
The following graph is based on a 2012 study from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. It shows the
effect that the level of education has on median earnings for persons ages 25 and over.
SOURCE:
Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Labor Statistics (2013, December 19). Earnings and
unemployment rates by educational attainment. Retrieved from
http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm
Page 2 of 20
B. State Profiles
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) supplies education data regarding
subject-matter achievement and instructional experiences for populations of students as well as
specific demographics within those populations. The NAEP is a continuing and nationally
representative measure of achievement.
Traditionally, states have had individual education standards. Consider the difference in state
education outcomes.
SOURCE:
National Center for Education Statistics. (2014). State profiles. Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/states/
Page 3 of 20
C. Nation’s Report Cards
The following statistics are results from the Nation’s Report Card. The Nation’s Report Card
communicates the findings of NAEP.
Page 4 of 20
Page 5 of 20
Page 6 of 20
SOURCE:
Page 7 of 20
The Nation’s Report Card. (2013). Are the nation’s students making progress in mathematics
and reading? Retrieved from
http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2013/#/performance-overview
Page 8 of 20
D. International Benchmark Results
The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international assessment that
measures 15-year-old students’ reading, mathematics, and science literacy. More information
about PISA and resources, including the PISA reports, PISA assessment frameworks, and
international data files, are available at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development website.
Page 9 of 20
U.S. Performance in Reading Literacy
Page 10 of 20
U.S. Performance in Reading Literacy
Exhibit 1 Description of PISA proficiency levels on combined reading literacy scale: 2009
Proficiency level
and lower cut
point score
Level 6
698
Level 5
626
Level 4
553
Level 3
480
Level 2
407
Task description
At level 6, tasks typically require the reader to make multiple inferences, comparisons and contrasts that
are both detailed and precise. They require demonstration of a full and detailed understanding of one or
more texts and may involve integrating information from more than one text. Tasks may require the
reader to deal with unfamiliar ideas, in the presence of prominent competing information, and to
generate abstract categories for interpretations. Reflect and evaluate tasks may require the reader to
hypothesize about or critically evaluate a complex text on an unfamiliar topic, taking into account multiple
criteria or perspectives, and applying sophisticated understandings from beyond the text. There is limited
data about access and retrieve tasks at this level, but it appears that a salient condition is precision of
analysis and fine attention to detail that is inconspicuous in the texts.
At level 5, tasks involve retrieving information require the reader to locate and organize several pieces of
deeply embedded information, inferring which information in the text is relevant. Reflective tasks require
critical evaluation or hypothesis, drawing on specialized knowledge. Both interpretative and reflective
tasks require a full and detailed understanding of a text whose content or form is unfamiliar. For all
aspects of reading, tasks at this level typically involve dealing with concepts that are contrary to
expectations.
At level 4, tasks involve retrieving information require the reader to locate and organize several pieces of
embedded information. Some tasks at this level require interpreting the meaning of nuances of language
in a section of text by taking into account the text as a whole. Other interpretative tasks require
understanding and applying categories in an unfamiliar context. Reflective tasks at this level require
readers to use formal or public knowledge to hypothesize about or critically evaluate a text. Readers
must demonstrate an accurate understanding of long or complex texts whose content or form may be
unfamiliar.
At level 3, tasks require the reader to locate, and in some cases recognize the relationship between,
several pieces of information that must meet multiple conditions. Interpretative tasks at this level require
the reader to integrate several parts of a text in order to identify a main idea, understand a relationship
or construe the meaning of a word or phrase. They need to take into account many features in
comparing, contrasting or categorizing. Often the required information is not prominent or there is much
competing information; or there are other text obstacles, such as ideas that are contrary to expectation
or negatively worded. Reflective tasks at this level may require connections, comparisons, and
explanations, or they may require the reader to evaluate a feature of the text. Some reflective tasks
require readers to demonstrate a fine understanding of the text in relation to familiar, everyday
knowledge. Other tasks do not require detailed text comprehension but require the reader to draw on
less common knowledge.
At level 2, some tasks require the reader to locate one or more pieces of information, which may need to
be inferred and may need to meet several conditions. Others require recognizing the main idea in a text,
understanding relationships, or construing meaning within a limited part of the text when the information
is not prominent and the reader must make low level inferences. Tasks at this level may involve
comparisons or contrasts based on a single feature in the text. Typical reflective tasks at this level
require readers to make a comparison or several connections between the text and outside knowledge,
by drawing on personal experience and attitudes.
Page 11 of 20
Level 1a 335
At level 1a, tasks require the reader to locate one or more independent pieces of explicitly stated
information; to recognize the main theme or author‘s purpose in a text about a familiar topic, or to make
a simple connection between information in the text and common, everyday knowledge. Typically the
required information in the text is prominent and there is little, if any, competing information. The reader
is explicitly directed to consider relevant factors in the task and in the text.
Level 1b 262
At level 1b, tasks require the reader to locate a single piece of explicitly stated information in a
prominent position in a short, syntactically simple text with a familiar context and text type, such as a
narrative or a simple list. The text typically provides support to the reader, such as repetition of
information, pictures or familiar symbols. There is minimal competing information. In tasks requiring
interpretation the reader may need to make simple connections between adjacent pieces of
information.
NOTE: To reach a particular proficiency level, a student must correctly answer a majority of items at that level. Students were classified into reading literacy
levels according to their scores. Exact cut point scores are as follows: below level 1b (a score less than or equal to 262.04);level 1b (a score greater than
262.04 and less than or equal to 334.75); level 1a (a score greater than 334.75 and less than or equal to 407.47); level 2 (a score greater than 407.47 and
less than or equal to 480.18); level 3 (a score greater than 480.18 and less than or equal to 552.89); level 4 (a score greater than 552.89 and less than or
equal to 625.61); level 5 (a score greater than 625.61 and less than or equal to 698.32); and level 6 (a score greater than 698.32).Scores are reported on a
scale from 0 to 1,000.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009
Page 12 of 20
Page 13 of 20
U.S. Performance in Mathematics Literacy
Performance at PISA
Proficiency Levels
PISA’s six mathematics literacy proficiency
levels, ranging from 1 to 6, are described in
exhibit 2 (see appendix B for information about
how the proficiency are created).
Exhibit 2 Description of PISA proficiency levels on mathematics literacy scale: 2009
Proficiency level
and lower cut
point score
Level 6
669
Level 5
607
Level 4
545
Level 3
482
Task description
At level 6,students can conceptualize, generalize, and utilize information based on their investigations
and modeling of complex problem situations. They can link different information sources and
representations and flexibly translate among them. Students at this level are capable of advanced
mathematical thinking and reasoning. These students can apply this insight and understandings along
with a mastery of symbolic and formal mathematical operations and relationships to develop new
approaches and strategies for attacking novel situations. Students at this level can formulate and
precisely communicate their actions and reflections regarding their findings, interpretations, arguments,
and the appropriateness of these to the original situations.
At level 5,students can develop and work with models for complex situations, identifying constraints
and specifying assumptions. They can select, compare, and evaluate appropriate problem solving
strategies for dealing with complex problems related to these models. Students at this level can work
strategically using broad, well-developed thinking and reasoning skills, appropriate linked
representations, symbolic and formal characterizations, and insight pertaining to these situations.
They can reflect on their actions and formulate and communicate their interpretations and reasoning.
At level 4,students can work effectively with explicit models for complex concrete situations that may
involve constraints or call for making assumptions. They can select and integrate different
representations, including symbolic ones, linking them directly to aspects of real-world situations.
Students at this level can utilize well-developed skills and reason flexibly, with some insight, in these
contexts. They can construct and communicate explanations and arguments based on their
interpretations, arguments, and actions.
At level 3, students can execute clearly described procedures, including those that require
sequential decisions. They can select and apply simple problem solving strategies. Students at this
level can interpret and use representations based on different information sources and reason
directly from them. They can develop short communications reporting their interpretations, results
and reasoning.
Page 14 of 20
Level 2
420
Level 1
358
At level 2,students can interpret and recognize situations in contexts that require no more than direct
inference. They can extract relevant information from a single source and make use of a single
representational mode. Students at this level can employ basic algorithms, formulae, procedures, or
conventions. They are capable of direct reasoning and making literal interpretations of the results.
At level 1, students can answer questions involving familiar contexts where all relevant information
is present and the questions are clearly defined. They are able to identify information and to carry
out routine procedures according to direct instructions in explicit situations. They can perform
actions that are obvious and follow immediately from the given stimuli.
NOTE: To reach a particular proficiency level, a student must correctly answer a majority of items at that level. Students were classified into mathematics
literacy levels according to their scores. Cut point scores in the exhibit are rounded; exact cut point scores are provided in appendix B. Scores are reported
on a scale from 0 to 1,000.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009.
Page 15 of 20
U.S. Performance in Science Literacy
Page 16 of 20
Performance at
PISA Proficiency
Levels
PISA’s six science literacy proficiency levels,
ranging from 1 to 6, are described in exhibit 3
(see appendix B for information about how the
proficiency are created).
Exhibit 3. Description of PISA proficiency levels on science literacy scale: 2009
Proficiency level
and lower cut
point score
Level 6
708
Level 5
633
Level 4
559
Level 3
484
Task description
At level 6, students can consistently identify, explain and apply scientific knowledge and knowledge
about science in a variety of complex life situations. They can link different information sources and
explanations and use evidence from those sources to justify decisions. They clearly and consistently
demonstrate advanced scientific thinking and reasoning, and they demon- strate willingness to use
their scientific understanding in support of solutions to unfamiliar scientific and technological situations.
Students at this level can use scientific knowledge and develop arguments in support of
recommendations and decisions that centre on personal, social or global situations.
At level 5, students can identify the scientific components of many complex life situations, apply both
scientific concepts and knowledge about science to these situations, and can compare, select and
evaluate appropriate scientific evidence for responding to life situations. Students at this level can use
well-developed inquiry abilities, link knowledge appropriately and bring critical insights to situations.
They can construct explanations based on evidence and arguments based on their critical analysis.
At level 4, students can work effectively with situations and issues that may involve explicit phenomena
requiring them to make inferences about the role of science or technology. They can select and
integrate explanations from different disciplines of science or technology and link those explanations
directly to aspects of life situations. Students at this level can reflect on their actions and they can
communicate decisions using scientific knowledge and evidence.
At level 3, students can identify clearly described scientific issues in a range of contexts. They can
select facts and knowledge to explain phenomena and apply simple models or inquiry strategies.
Students at this level can interpret and use scientific concepts from different disciplines and can apply
them directly. They can develop short statements using facts and make decisions based on scientific
knowledge.
Page 17 of 20
Level 2
410
Level 1
335
At level 2, students have adequate scientific knowledge to provide possible explanations in familiar
contexts or draw conclu- sions based on simple investigations. They are capable of direct reasoning
and making literal interpretations of the results of scientific inquiry or technological problem solving.
At level 1, students have such a limited scientific knowledge that it can only be applied to a few,
familiar situations. They can present scientific explanations that are obvious and follow explicitly from
given evidence.
NOTE: To reach a particular proficiency level, a student must correctly answer a majority of items at that level. Students were classified into science
literacy levels according to their scores. Cut point scores in the exhibit are rounded; exact cut point scores are provided in appendix B. Scores are
reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009.
SOURCE:
National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). Retrieved from
https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011004.
E. Socioeconomic Effects on Testing
Students’ eligibility for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is used in NAEP as an
indicator
of family income. Students from lower-income families are eligible for either free or reducedprice
school lunches, while students from higher-income families are not. Because of the improved
quality of the data on students’ eligibility in more recent years, results are only compared as far
back as 2003.
Page 18 of 20
SOURCE:
The Nation’s Report Card. (2012). Findings in brief reading and mathematics 2011. Retrieved
from
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:VnBacARUlpYJ:nces.ed.gov/
nationsreportcard/pdf/main2011/2012459.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk≷=us
Page 19 of 20
The Nation’s Report Card. (2012). Reading 2011. Retrieved from
http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2011/reading_2011_report/
Public Education Network and National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education. (2004).
Standards and assessment. Retrieved from
http://www.ncpie.org/nclbaction/standards_assessment.html
References
Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Labor Statistics. (2013). Earnings and
unemployment rates by educational attainment. Retrieved from
http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm
National Center for Education Statistics. (2010, December 7). Highlights From PISA
2009: Performance of U.S. 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, and science
literacy in an international context. Retrieved from
https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011004
National Center for Education Statistics. (2014). State profiles. Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/states/
The Nation’s Report Card. (2013). Are the nation’s students making progress in
mathematics and reading? Retrieved from
http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2013/#/performance-overview
The Nation’s Report Card. (2012). Findings in brief reading and mathematics 2011.
Retrieved from
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:VnBacARUlpYJ:nces.ed.gov/
nationsreportcard/pdf/main2011/2012459.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk≷=us
The Nation’s Report Card. (2012). Reading 2011. Retrieved from
http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2011/reading_2011_report/
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2014). PISA 2012
results. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results.htm
Page 20 of 20
Issues in K-12 Education Case Study
Document 3
This is an authentic document from United States Department of Education. It explains
the role of technology in education and explores non-traditional settings for K-12
education. A common set of standards would likely include some form of digital literacy,
either in performing specific tasks while utilizing technology or measuring student
achievement. Consider the function of technology while debating the use of standards in
education.
Use of Technology in Teaching and Learning
Technology ushers in fundamental structural changes that can be integral to achieving
significant improvements in productivity. Used to support both teaching and learning,
technology infuses classrooms with digital learning tools, such as computers and hand
held devices; expands course offerings, experiences, and learning materials; supports
learning 24 hours a day, 7 days a week; builds 21st century skills; increases student
engagement and motivation; and accelerates learning. Technology also has the power
to transform teaching by ushering in a new model of connected teaching. This model
links teachers to their students and to professional content, resources, and systems to
help them improve their own instruction and personalize learning.
Online learning opportunities and the use of open educational resources and other
technologies can increase educational productivity by accelerating the rate of learning;
reducing costs associated with instructional materials or program delivery; and better
utilizing teacher time.
The links on this page are provided for the user’s convenience and are not an
endorsement. See full disclaimer.
Virtual or online learning: 48 states and the District of Columbia currently support
online learning opportunities that range from supplementing classroom instruction on an
occasional basis to enrolling students in full-time programs. These opportunities include
dual enrollment, credit recovery, and summer school programs, and can make courses
such as Advanced Placement and honors, or remediation classes available to students.
Both core subjects and electives can be taken online, many supported by online
learning materials. While some online schools or programs are homegrown, many
others contract with private providers or other states to provide online learning
opportunities.
Full-time online schools: The following online or virtual schools enroll students on a
full-time basis. Students enrolled in these schools are not attending a bricks and mortar
school; instead they receive all of their instruction and earn all of their credits through
the online school.
State operated
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 1 of 6
•
•
•
The Florida Virtual School – An online school that provides full-time learning
opportunities to students in grades K-12. Districts can also work with Florida
Virtual School to provide blended learning opportunities to students by enabling
them to access online courses from school sites. Additional link here.
Utah Electronic High School – An 18-year-old online high school providing a
range of courses to students year round. The school can award diplomas to
students who are home-schooled, have dropped out, or are ineligible to graduate
from a traditional high school for specific reasons.
North Carolina Virtual Public School – An online high school offering 120 courses
to students both during and after the school day. The courses offered include
Advanced Placement and honors courses, world languages, electives, credit
recovery, and online college courses. The school also provides test preparation
and career planning services to students.
District operated
•
•
•
Karval Online Education – A public K-12 online school for Colorado residents that
provides a free computer for the family to use while the student is enrolled and
provides reimbursement opportunities to offset Internet and other educational
expenses. Dual credit courses are available to juniors and seniors.
Campbell County Virtual School – This school serves Wyoming students in
grades K-6. Families of enrolled students are loaned a computer and receive
subsidized Internet access, as well as materials including CDs, videos,
instructional materials, and hands-on tools and resources to complement the
interactive online elements of the program.
Salem-Keizer Online – This online Oregon high school is an accredited program
of Roberts High School in the Salem-Keizer Public School District in Oregon. The
school provides 24/7 learning opportunities to students living within the
boundaries of the school district and who are not enrolled in their neighborhood
public school. Tuition is only required for students enrolled in summer school
courses.
Charter operated
•
Guided Online Academic Learning Academy – An online public charter high
school in Colorado for students ages 14-21. The Academy offers more than 200
courses to students as well as a variety of support services, activities to support
student-to-student interactions, and drop-in centers to facilitate enrollment,
counseling, assessments, and other services.
Blended learning: Blended learning opportunities incorporate both face-to-face and
online learning opportunities. The degree to which online learning takes place, and the
way it is integrated into the curriculum, can vary across schools. The strategy of
blending online learning with school-based instruction is often utilized to accommodate
students’ diverse learning styles and to enable them to work before or after school in
ways that are not possible with full-time conventional classroom instruction. Online
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 2 of 6
learning has the potential to improve educational productivity by accelerating the rate of
learning, taking advantage of learning time outside of school hours, reducing the cost of
instructional materials, and better utilizing teacher time. These strategies can be
particularly useful in rural areas where blended or online learning can help teachers and
students in remote areas overcome distance.
State operated
•
Michigan Virtual School – Michigan’s students are able to take online classes
and access online learning tools from their middle and high schools via this
virtual school. Michigan Virtual also provides full-time learning opportunities to
middle and high school students. Districts in the state work with the virtual school
to grant course credit and diplomas to students.
District operated
•
•
Walled Lake Consolidated School District – This Michigan district’s online
summer school credit recovery program was expanded to include online learning
opportunities during the school year. Students can now enroll in up to two online
courses each semester while continuing to attend school for at least four hours a
day. Eleventh and twelfth graders may also choose to enroll concurrently in
postsecondary courses via a partnership with a local community college. The
credit recovery program reduced per-student costs by 57 percent and the district
estimates that by offering two online courses during the school year it has been
able to save $517 per student on instructional costs.
Riverside Virtual School – This school makes interactive courses available to
students in Southern California and to other students in rural schools in the state.
Students in grades 6-12, including those who are homeschooled, may enroll fulltime.
School operated
•
•
•
San Francisco Flex Academy – This high school is a five-days-a-week hybrid
school that provides an online curriculum that personalizes learning and enables
students to move through courses at their own pace. These online courses are
taken at the school site and are supported by credentialed teachers.
Rocketship – This elementary charter school network in California is a hybrid
school model. Each day, students attend the Learning Lab where they use
computers to support their individual learning needs. These Labs do not require
certified teachers, enabling Rocketship to reinvest the savings in training,
Response to Intervention, higher teacher salaries, facilities, and academic deans.
While students are in the Lab, teachers are engaging in planning.
Carpe Diem Collegiate High School – Carpe Diem is a hybrid school in Arizona
that offers computer-assisted instruction and onsite teacher facilitators. This
model enables students to progress as they demonstrate mastery.
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 3 of 6
•
iPrep Academy – This Miami-Dade County Public School offers a teacherfacilitated virtual curriculum to 11th graders. Its motto is “learn anytime, anywhere
at” and at the students’ own pace. The curriculum includes Advanced Placement
and honors courses, distance learning opportunities that enable students to
engage with their peers from around the world, and applies real word
experiences to learning.
Open educational resources: Open educational resources are teaching, learning, and
research resources that reside in the public domain and are freely available to anyone
over the Web. They are an important element of an infrastructure for learning and range
from podcasts to digital libraries to textbooks and games. It is critical to ensure that
open educational resources meet standards of quality, integrity, and accuracy—as with
any other educational resource—and that they are accessible to students with
disabilities.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Open High School of Utah – This school uses open educational resources to
create an open source curriculum. To create this curriculum, teachers gather and
sort through open source materials, align them with state standards, and modify
the materials to meet student needs.
CK-12 – CK-12 FlexBooks are customizable, standards-aligned, digital textbooks
for grades K-12. They are intended to provide high-quality educational content
that will serve both as core text and provide an adaptive environment for
learning.
Leadership Public Schools (LPS) – In each of the four LPS schools, teachers
work together to utilize open-source materials to meet the specific learning needs
of their students. Through a partnership with CK-12, LPS has developed College
Access Readers, a series of online books with literacy supports embedded in
them to meet the individual needs of students, from advanced to underperforming students.
Khan Academy – The Khan Academy is a not-for-profit organization providing
digital learning resources, including an extensive video library, practice
exercises, and assessments. These resources focus on K-12 math and science
topics such as biology, chemistry, and physics, and include resources on the
humanities, finance, and history.
Mooresville Graded School District – This North Carolina district launched a
Digital Conversion Initiative to promote the use of technology to improve teaching
and learning. In addition to the use of laptop computers and other technologies
as instructional tools, the Initiative led to a shift to digital textbooks which are
aligned to the state’s standards.
Vail Unified School District – This Arizona district has replaced textbooks with a
digital learning environment that enables every school in the district to take
advantage of an online tool to create digital textbooks and support effective
teaching.
Use digital resources well: Schools can use digital resources in a variety of ways to
support teaching and learning. Electronic grade books, digital portfolios, learning
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 4 of 6
games, and real-time feedback on teacher and student performance, are a few ways
that technology can be utilized to power learning.
•
•
•
High Tech High – High Tech High (HTH) is a network of eleven California charter
schools offering project-based learning opportunities to students in grades K-12.
HTH links technical and academic studies and focuses on personalization and
the connection of learning to the real word. To support student learning and
share the results of project-based learning, HTH makes a wealth of resources
available online, including teacher and student portfolios, videos, lessons, and
other resources.
New Technology High School – At this California school, student work is
assessed across classes and grades, and feedback is made available to
students via online grade books. These grade books are continually updated so
that students can see how they are doing not only in each course, but also on
each of their learning outcomes, averaged across all their courses. Electronic
learning portfolios contain examples of students’ work and associated
evaluations across all classes and grades. New Tech High is part of the national
New Tech Network.
Quest to Learn – This school, located in New York, utilizes games and other
forms of digital media to provide students with a curriculum that is design-led and
inquiry-based. The goal of this model is to use education technologies to support
students in becoming active problem solvers and critical thinkers, and to provide
students with constant feedback on their achievement.
Additional resources:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology, National
Education Technology Plan 2010, U.S. Department of Education
A National Primer on K-12 Online Learning, iNACOL
The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning, Innosight Institute
The Technology Factor: Nine Keys to Student Achievement and CostEffectiveness, Project RED
Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A meta-analysis and
review of online learning studies, U.S. Department of Education
Florida Virtual School: Building the first statewide, Internet-based public high
school, Innosight
School of One – This math-based program for students in grades six through
eight operates in three New York City middle schools. School of One uses
technology to develop a unique learning path for each student and to provide
individualized and differentiated instruction. The program uses data from student
assessments to identify the skills that each student needs to work on. Inputs from
teachers and from students provide information about how each student learns
best. A computer algorithm uses the information about each student’s
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 5 of 6
demonstrated mathematics skills and his or her learning preferences to generate
individual “playlists” of appropriate learning activities.
Reference
United States Department of Education. (2014). Use of technology in teaching and
learning. Retrieved from: https://www.ed.gov/oii-news/use-technology-teaching-andlearning
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
Page 6 of 6

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

We offer the bestcustom writing paper services. We have done this question before, we can also do it for you.

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.