Do some edit to the essay and follow the teacher requirement


here is the feedback that teacher provide: (and could you please make a visual image for me) like a graph that told the reader what this essay about.

First, there are issues of plagiarism in this draft, particularly with your first few paragraphs. You need to make sure that these arguments are you own and that you are not repeating the claims made by your sources. Please revise for the next draft. For revision, consider the following:

1. Revise working claim – your argument here is about what cities should do, but that is very hard to support and might be speculative. Rather, you can make a suggestion that other cities should turn to smart growth to address issues because as it is currently being implemented, it is achieving many good things (fill in your details).

2. Use topic sentences to state the argument for each body paragraph and be sure that it also ties back to your main claim. Remember, you are making a claim here about smart growth and you need to be more explicit about how some of your evidence is connected to your main claim.

3. You need to review your subclaims for this paper and see how they are supporting your argument about smart growth.

I already do some edit to the essay, and could you please extend the page limit to 10 and follow the requirement.

Here is who the teacher grade the essay:


Consistently strong writing, logical progression of well articulated ideas, strong analysis synthesis, appropriate use of summary


Effective, original, has depth strong arguable

Elements of argument:

Above average understanding and application

Sources and evidence:

Strong selection, useful and well integrated

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Land Use with Smart Growth in American Southwest
This article reviews and draws conclusions on the extent to which the principles of smart
growth can be into land use planning in the American Southwest. It also examines the
effectiveness of existing land use compatibility in this region from the perspective of smart
growth strategies. The central premise is that by understanding and applying the tenets and the
strategy of smart growth, planners and developers in this region can establish a common base of
land use planning, reduce the potential conflicts, and promote an orderly, harmonious
development of the landscape (McKinney and Harmon). Like all regions in the United States and
elsewhere, the American southwest – from the eastern stretch of the city of Los Angeles to El
Paso and from the communities in New Mexico to the South of Denver – is changing. New
forces and socio-demographic trends are defining the regions landscapes, communities, and
quality of life – directly influencing how the region approaches growth, planning, and land use
management. Within these trends, a myriad of challenges have arisen such as urban sprawling
and dispersed land use patterns, pockets of unpredictable population growth, lack of social
amenities, and inadequate funds and political support for planning. Collectively, these problems
have in turn brought about a myriad of other challenges critical of which are congestion and
pollution (McKinney and Harmon).
Thesis: The smart growth strategies in the Southwest America could help to address the issues
related to the non-functionalities, non-interaction as well as the pollution but by promoting
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proper land use policies, preserving and creating some open spaces, and providing consistency to
some developments.
In the article, ‘How El Paso Ended Up with America’s Best Smart Growth Plan,’ the
author Kaid Benfield informs about the city council’s comprehensive plan about the El Paso’s
based on the principles of the smart growth and green development. This article highlights that
the city is of great economic success with rich cultural history but it has bad developmental
plans. The implementation of the new land planning strategies would bring many challenges
along with them. Urban sprawling, dispersed land use patterns, pockets of unpredictable
population growth, lack of social amenities, and inadequate funds and political support for,
planning could hinder the process of the implementation. It could also cause congestion and
pollution (McKinney and Harmon). The growth strategies would help to develop the existing
urban centers transformed into functional and interactive living spaces. Mostly, the Americans
dwelling in these regions live isolated and disconnected. The land use patterns and
transportation, and the overall community design which discourage transit ridership, walkability,
and bicycling to move around are the main reasons living so distant from each other (Handy).
Socially, these uncoordinated infrastructural and land-use planning practices have
contributed to the rising rates of obesity and related health. The need for the implementing new
strategies for land is very important because it is giving rise to ghettoization and isolated nondriving individuals who reside in car-dependent environments. ‘Foster effective planning and
growth management through collaboration. Collaboration … with good information … will
create effective, sustainable solutions to their shared problems’ (McKinney and Harmon). The
root cause of this problem is the nature of the landscape in the American southwest as it is a
region of wide-open, sparsely populated desert space. On the other hand, El Paso Texas,
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Albuquerque New Mexico, and Phoenix, Tucson, and Mesa in Arizona are densely populated
cities. Land use policy is arguably the most extensively used planning tool to shape the rural
landscape and urban environments.
The land use policy is extensively planned to shape the rural as well as the urban
landscape. The effect of the pedestrian development and poor land use policy reflects in the
natural environment in form of negative externalities. The southwest cities face the problem of
urban development – quantity and quality. For instance, El Paso has instituted a comprehensive
revitalization plan designed to make the city healthier and happier by making the area more
walkable, which controlled many health-related problems. On the other hand, it has also
encouraged the social interaction. In contrast, other cities such as Phoenix are still struggling
with urban sprawl in car-centric neighborhoods (Benfield). However, the individuals do not want
the revitalizations plans or the urban-planning initiatives because the individuals do not want
these initiatives. There is no green development even after the elaborative land planning. Half of
the downtown El Paso seems empty and majorly dedicated to parking lots, developers continue
to build more of single-family homes further and further from the city center at the expense of
more walkable neighborhoods (communities) and apartment-style residential buildings
(Semuels). The real problem in the El Paso is the rigid institutional frameworks, and they are
curtailing smart growth development in the Southwest.
Absolute property rights system and poor land decisions discourage more efficient land
use practices as demonstrated by the urban sprawl at the periphery of El Paso city. Sprawl can be
thought of as a situation where urban cities and its suburbs haphazardly tend to spread out at a
rapid and accelerating rate. In many places in the Southwest, this has destroyed some of the best
neighborhoods and altered unique landscapes forever. Poor planning and urban designing in this
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region also mean that commute and driving hassles are growing because jobs and amenities are
placed in areas detached from housing areas. In the American southwest, the development
decisions are made on ad hoc basis. The frustrating fact about the land development is lack of
action even after making the plans. No one follows them consistently despite the efforts. On the
other hand, they face the opposition and resistance towards the development and planning
proposals for such projects. It has the inevitable result is the chaotic and unharmonious
development. In El Paso roads and highways do not connect; consequently, the feeder roads,
bypasses, and other motorways become clogged with extra traffic. Unsightly and look-alike strip
centers and their side-by-side parking lots come to dominate the landscape. Sidewalks and
cycling lanes stop at the arterial roads where they are needed the most. Moreover, housing and
related social amenities get more and more exorbitant as developers opt for the path of easy
money by proposing the designs of expensive housing. While citing a recent survey nationwide,
note that 85% of all county officials indicate that most new housing projects in their county are
designed and geared towards middle and upper-income households and not the working families.
The public has started to demand something better for the land development because the
public has accepted these unplanned outcomes as an unpleasant fact. Many citizens all over the
southwest are increasingly starting to demand something better. The residents do not want to
stop growth, and they are tired of poor planning and frustrated by perennial traffic and
inaccessibility to essential services. They need a plan service in which everyone has something.
El Paso’s growth plan offers a glimpse of what this might be. In 19th century, the United States
of America has been plagued with sprawling haphazard land use development patterns, carbon
pollution, and an alarming rate of land consumption. “The plan proposes strategies to bring more
of the activi-ties of daily living within walking distance and a framework of transportation
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alternatives including transit and bicycle systems” (Benfield). To address these issues, the city
constructed the Plan El Paso – one of the most articulate comprehensive city development plan
built around the tenets of green development and smart growth. The plan had adverse effects on
the health of people like high blood pressure, obesity, and the maladies associated with such
alienation, which have become a major issue in El Paso. It happened because the city’s
architecture does not facilitate the pedestrians as well as limited the human interaction. The
urban environment has distance people from each other, particularly, with an urban environment
that necessitates long distance driving. This problem manifests throughout the major urban
centers across the Southwest from Phoenix Arizona to Albuquerque New Mexico.
The El Paso city plan, therefore, recommends strategies to bring activities and services of
daily living close to people and within walking distances. It also recognizes the importance of
transportation alternatives such as mass transit and bicycle systems. “The connection between
transportation and land use lies at the center of efforts in the United States to combat sprawl
through smart growth strategies” (Handy). They need to encourage people to live side by side to
bridge the gap between the people and their activities by creating healthy lifestyles. They need to
build such residence where the people can feel the strong bond between each other by retaining a
close-knit community. In addition, the El Paso plan recognizes the importance of natural milieu
and “the indispensability of beauty, something other major cities in the region can borrow a leaf
from” (Benfield). Plan El Paso envisions beauty embodied in the homes, buildings,
neighborhoods, streets, and open public spaces. This would make it part of the day-to-day city
life of residents. In this way, Plan El Paso aims to create a modern choice-worthy town based on
the cherished principles of smart growth and the enduring values of green development. A
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scrutiny of the plan further indicates that within the propositions, El Paso hopes to build a
functional and long-lasting urban environment that is both delightful and attractive.
The highly recommended suggestion is for the Plan El Paso is to give priority to the
revitalization of older districts, the creation of balanced transportation options, reinvestment in
transit-supportive infill development, sustainable socio-economic development, and respect for
nature. The plan wants to reduce excessive carbon emissions by eliminating sprawl and creating
a walkable city and help to save city’s money. Urban sprawl is expensive for the town because
funds are required to extend water and offer other social services such as police, schools, health
centers, and sewer to faraway subdivisions. The estimate of the urban sprawl costs the United
States economy is $1 trillion annually. They also affirm that low-density, sprawling development
as those witnessed in the fringes of the cities of Phoenix and El Paso is more expensive than the
proposed compact, urban development in terms of the provision of transportation services, real
estate development, infrastructure, and public amenities in the El Paso Plan. Handy echoes
similar sentiments and argues that people living in compact and well-connected metropolitan
areas enjoy a higher quality of life, spend less in housing and transportation regarding both costs
and time, and have higher economic mobility.
First adopted in 2006, Plan El Paso reinforces the proposition that smart growth plan is
essential in the creation of interactive and functional cities. The growth strategies encapsulated in
the plan highlight the multiple benefits associated with Smart Growth and green development.
These benefits range from lower spending on public infrastructure to reduced pressure on land
use consumption and conversion. However, the greatest and most attractive promise of Smart
Growth is that it diversifies and increases the mix of available and affordable residential areas
with a range of transportation choices while at the same time helping to create and foster strong
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“sense of place,” neighborhood ties, and high quality of life (Benfield). This potential is not
exclusive to El Paso but has also been recognized in other cities across the region. In 1998 for
instance, the state of Arizona enacted the Growing Smarter Act, which was instrumental in
reforming land use planning and zoning policies across the state. The amendment of the Act in
2000 not only created the Growing Smarter Commission but also mandated more public
participation and resident input in the local development and land use planning.
Some of the most common principles of Smart Growth that are widely recognized and
which have been echoed in both the Arizona’s smart legislative piece and El Paso’s green
development plan include mixed land use patterns, taking advantage of compact built
environments design, and creating walkable neighborhoods full of a range of houses and housing
choices (EPA). Other benefits likely to accrue from the implementation of the El Paso plan are
the provision of a variety of transportation choices, preservation of open spaces, natural beauty,
and critical ecological zones, and strengthening and directing development initiatives towards
meeting the needs of the existing and future communities (Lee).
In El Paso, the Smart Growth plan includes elaborated variations of these principles
tailored to influence public infrastructure, annual budgetary allocations and work programs,
development approvals, and capital generation and improvement plans. While there is a broad
overlap with the principles of smart growth listed above, there is special attention that has been
paid in the crafting of smart growth plans and acts in the southwest. The profound detail for the
need of smart development plans is based on the recognition that every neighborhood in this
region is different and hence requires different approaches to restoration and growth. Each city
presents distinct challenges and requires tailor-made solutions. The El Paso has all these and
other cities can borrow from the plan and follow suit.
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Basically, the planning is to motivate the development of the land to preserve he open space. The
most important aspect is that the insufficient public building as well as the political support can
help to change the lifestyle of the people living there. The most important thing is to involve the
local government of the region to make the development fast and effective. According to
LeRoyer, “state governments must help local governments by establishing reasonable ground
rules and planning requirements, assisting small and rural areas, and providing leadership on
matters that affect more than one local jurisdiction” (LeRoyer). Through total interaction and cooperation, the land development can be very organized and effective. The most compelling
argument is to plan the economic development as well as to sustain the quality of life. The
motivation is the main thing, and the motivation drives them to put the plans into action.
Counterargument Paragraph:
Many people believe that the smart growth project is basically the destruction of natural
habitat because people will never get the natural environment back after urbanization. The critics
says that ‘critics claim that public transit investments are not cost effective because the costs of
attracting additional riders are high and overall ridership is too small to reduce traffic congestion’
(Litman). However, this is not the case rather the smart growth could increase the transit
ridership tends. The fast and ineffective development of late can be converted into the healthier
and efficient way because it can be used effectively at any time. There is always the opportunity
to develop and convert the vacant urban land in America presents a unique opportunity for the
implementation of smart growth. Vacant land in the United States, including the Southwest, for
instance, could be used for anything. The smart growth could take place in these areas
exceedingly easily and the authors push for such a thing to happen, comparing these open spaces
to areas which have experienced significant growth with no thought to planning on behalf of
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citizens or the environment. Postulated evidence makes reference to towns which could
intermingle with open spaces, allowing for a maximum use of space, and the health and safety of
the population and environment to be a priority.
It is evident throughout the paper that smart growth offers a myriad of advantages that
can benefit the American southwest region. It has also been noted that this region has new forces
and trends are emerging that are transforming and redefining the area’s landscape, quality of life,
and communities. These changes are significant in how land use planning should be designed
and managed. This step has been achieved by highlighting the proposals presented in the El Paso
smart growth initiative. The overwhelming presence of landscapes is one of the factors that set
the American southwest apart from a majority of the country. The vast distance between people
and access to activities of their daily living means that people here drive to get almost anywhere.
Walkability is therefore hampered, and resident cohesion and interaction significantly curtailed
especially in the periphery of the major cities of El Paso, Phoenix, Mesa, and Tucson. Absolute
property rights over land – where large tracts of land are either governed by federal agents or by
tribal entities – has further served to influence the politics of planning and land use decisions,
with the result of non-participatory development decisions. The situation is made worse when the
residents oppose the proposed development initiatives. However, the drafting of the El Paso
growth initiative and the passing of the Growing Smart Act in Arizona has shown that planning
in this region is motivated by the general concern to provide consistency among various
development initiatives, preserve open spaces, and promote the orderly development of the
region’s landscape. These goals as discussed throughout the paper continue to be essential
objectives that are today compelling arguments for fostering sustainable economic development,
harmonious social cohesion, and sustaining the quality of life. In El Paso, smart growth
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initiatives and the green development proposals are economic imperatives meant to enhance the
region’s overall quality of life rather than limiting or directing growth. The plan, which the other
cities of the southwest can borrow and implement using the specifics of their region is a smart
growth strategy designed to integrate socio-economic vitality and environmental protection.
Works Cited
Benfield, Kaid. “How El Paso Ended Up with America’s Best Smart Growth Plan.” CityLab,
8 Mar. 2012, Accessed 4 Mar. 2018.
Goldberg, David. Choosing Our Community’s Future: A Citizen’s Guide to Getting the Most
Out of New Development. Smart Growth America, 2005. Accessed 4 Mar. 2018.
Handy, Susan. “Smart Growth and the Transportation-Land Use Connection: What Does the
Research Tell Us?” International Regional Science Review, vol. 28, no. 2, 2005,
pp. 146-167,
Accessed 4 Mar. 2018.
Litman, Todd. “Evaluating Criticism of Smart Growth.” Victoria Transport Policy Institute,
19 July 2016, pp. 1–103.
LeRoyer, Ann. “Land Use in America.” Lincoln Intitute of Land Policy, 1 Mar. 1996,
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Lee, Richard W. Applying Smart Growth Principles and Strategies to Resolving Land Use
Conflicts around Airports. Mineta Transportation Institute, College of Business, San
José State U, 2008.
. Accessed 4 Mar. 2018.
McKinney, Matthew, and Will Harmon. Land Use Planning and Growth Management in the
American West. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2002. Accessed 4 Mar. 2018.
Scott, Marcia S., et al. The Use of Smart-Growth Scorecards/Assessment Tools to Advance
Sustainable Land-Use Practices. Institute for Public Administration, 2016. Accessed
4 Mar. 2018.
Semuels, Alana. “El Paso Is Learning That Not Everyone Hates Sprawl.” The Atlantic,
[Washington DC], 28 Jan. 2016, Accessed 4 Mar. 2018.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). “About Smart Growth.” US EPA,
12 Oct. 2017, Accessed
4 Mar. 2018.

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