Editing and proof reading. Kindly do not bid if you don’t possess strong English command

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The paper is a research/ persuasive essay. While editing please focus your attention on ensuring there are no faulty parallelisms, dangling or misplaced modifiers, comma splices in my essay. Also, please ensure the subjects agree with their verbs in numbers, and that I use commas consistently to offset non-restrictive word groups but not to separate the subject from its verb (These are the past constructive criticisms from my professor). My Works Cited is not in the paper I sent because I do not need assistance for that. Everything I need you to proofread is in the document I sent 🙂 I’d really appreciate it if you look through every sentence carefully to catch any sentence boundary errors I might have made. My professor only gives A’s for papers that have near perfect grammar. I highlighted some areas I think might have grammatical errors but I’m not sure check the entire paper. I need proofreading for all the areas that don’t have highlighting too.

If you are not confident with English, Grammar and Sentence structure please do not bid.

Kindly make sure you read every sentence and paragraph carefully.

The Implications of Prison-Overcrowding
Currently, America has a prison-overcrowding problem with 7,000 correctional facilities
accommodating only 2.3 million inmates. During colonial America, penitentiary systems ceased
to exist. However, corporal punishment was a prominent punishment for crime. Transitioning to
the early 19th century, the Auburn and the Pennsylvania penitentiary systems were implemented
but were plagued with diseases, unsanitary hygiene, and dilapidated resources. Prison
overcrowding in the 20th century peaked when punitive punishment became the focus of the
Criminal Justice System. Today, America’s proliferating prison populations pose major
implications. Prison overcrowding implicates inmates, society, and the family unit.
Prison overcrowding soared during the late 20th century when America became “tough on
crime.” The large-scale changes in the Criminal Justice System resulted in a greater focus on
punitive punishment and on increased minimum-sentencing. Peter K. Enns, claims that political
leaders may use their platform for “crafted talk” to increase public perception on crime (860).
Crafted talk is when politicians gain the favour of the public by crafting their political platform
to support the prevalent perceptions of the public. The controversial “war on drugs” resulted in
mass incarcerations. Political leaders used drugs to fear-monger Americans into believing crimerates were at an all-time high. Enns references President Ronald Reagan strategically
perpetuating public awareness of crime when the presidential election was approaching in 1968
(860). As a result, political leaders have the platform and the power to sensationalize crime.
Furthermore, California’s infamous habitual offender laws, or three-strikes law led to
mass incarcerations. The three-strikes law was implemented in 1994, where a person guilty of
one violent crime and two subsequent crimes could receive a mandatory life-sentence in prison.
According to the three-strike law, minor offences of petty theft or misdemeanour can qualify as
the two subsequent crimes needed for a life-sentence conviction. Anusua Datta asserts, the
objective of these laws are to reduce recidivism rates, and to use lengthy prison sentences to
deter crime (226). However, the objective of the three-strike law is failing when California’s
prison population continues to rise. Joshua A. Jones asserts that since 2005, California is
accountable for over 87,500 prison sentences under the three-strike law (4). Former American
president Bill Clinton, one of the major players in the enactment of three-strikes law, admitted to
its flaws, decades later, by stating that “[The three-strikes law] locked up… minor actors for way
too long” (Baker). Sterner sentencing in legislation, fear-mongering of crime, and
disproportionate punishment in the Criminal Justice System propelled prison- overcrowding.
Prison over-crowding poses various implications to the health and safety of prison
inmates. Paul B. Paulus asserts that according to psychology prison over-crowding is a social
problem that occurs when inmates are in high density living environments (1) Daisy Whitehead
and Andrew Steptoe affirm that prison overcrowding increases inmate health deficiencies of high
blood pressure and chronic stress (221). They assert that the high-density prison conditions
render half of California’s inmates to suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Moreover, Prison overcrowding provokes more outbreaks of violence and of self-harm. A
Newspaper article from the Wall Street Journal, titled “U.S. News: State’s Prison Plan Meets
Skeptics — New facilities wouldn’t address Alabama’s high incarceration rates, critics say,”
explores the realities and detriments of prison overcrowding. Arian Campo-Flores, the writer of
the Newspaper, reveals that inmates in the Alabama prison system are clustered in very small
rooms that they must share with other inmates. As a result, inmates must fight and compete for
the limited resources. Campo-Flores affirms that inmates must resort to violence in order to
obtain limited resources like shower spaces. Moreover, there is a correlation between prison-
overcrowding and inmate suicide. Meredith Huey and Thomas Mcnulty, claim that suicide is the
prime indicator of death for inmates in custody (494). Likewise, Francesco Drago et al. assert
that inmate death is largely associated with inadequate prison resources, poor health, and space
restraints (106). As a result, prison-overcrowding increases health deficiencies and jeopardizes
the safety of prison inmates.
Prison overcrowding effects society by expending resources. Billions of tax-payers
dollars are expended to pay for custodial beds, food, security etc. The money allocated to
American penitentiary systems are predominately for maintenance purposes, rather than
providing inmates with important rehabilitation resources. The United States spends
approximately 80 billion dollars annually on prison expenditures. While, a staggering 43 million
Americans live in acute poverty. This means less money is being allocated to education, health,
employment, and welfare. In fact, the Daily Mail affirms that at least 15 states allocate $27,000
more per inmate than per student (Bauman). California has the greatest spending disparity by
allocating $53,146 per inmate and a mere $11,496 per student (Bauman). As a result, mass
incarceration is a costly phenomenon that exhausts valuable resources that could be allocated to
community aid and welfare.
Prison overcrowding effects society by increasing recidivism rates. Recidivism rates
increase when correctional facilities lack the means to implement and to maintain important
resources. These resources include rehabilitative, health, and educational programs to help
prisoners re-integrate themselves back into society. Francesco Drago et al. affirm that lack of
resources and harsh prison conditions substantially increases recidivism rates. J.C. Gaillard and
Fanny Navizet assert that inmates that are released from prison experience extreme forms of
ostracization and poverty; the seclusion and poverty pre-dispose former convicts to commit more
crimes (34). Thus, former convicts resort to criminality because of the Criminal Justice System’s
failure to offer sufficient resources.
Prison over-crowding can negatively affect families. More minor offences and nonviolent drug charges are resulting in life sentences that are proliferating prison populations and
that are proving detrimental to the family unit. Former President Barack Obama, during his
speech to The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), states:
“If you’re a low-level drug dealer, or you violate your parole, you owe some debt to
society…But you don’t owe 20 years… That’s disproportionate to the price that should be paid”
(Wakefield 9). Mass incarceration can irrevocably affect the family unit because of the lack of
opportunities former convicts obtain. Sara Wakefield et al. asserts that former convicts are
unable to adequately provide for their families; former convicts are sanctioned from certain jobs
and community services because of their criminal history (11). Moreover, children are reaping
the consequences of mass incarceration. Sara Wakefield et al. suggests that children who have
convicted felons as parents are more susceptible to mental health issues, homelessness,
interpersonal difficulties, relational hardships, and harsh parenting (11). The financial hardships
of former convicts and the negative consequences their children must bear implicate the family.
There are various arguments that refute the notion that prison over-crowding is a serious
social epidemic. Some may argue that inmates do not deserve the resources and the privileges
that law-abiding citizens earn. However, it may be important to consider that not all prisoners
receive life sentences. Approximately 626,000 inmates are annually released in America.
Therefore, it is important that penitentiary systems nurture and rehabilitate these prisoners to
successfully re-integrate themselves back into society. Failure to adequality re-integrate former
prisoners into society may result in recidivism and violence. Francesco Drago et al. claim that
insufficient resources in prison significantly increase recidivism rates (103). Some may argue
that dehumanizing a serial killer or sex offender is precedented. However, not all prisoners fit
into the generalization of being inherently vindictive, heinous, or barbarian. John Irwin et al.
states: “What is most disturbing about the prison population explosion is that the people being
sent to prison are not the Ted Bundies, Charlie Mansons, and Timothy McVeighs… Most are
defendants who have been found quality of a non-violent and not particularly serious crime”
(135). As a result, prison-overcrowding pre-disposes non-violent offenders to deplorable living
conditions and increases recidivism rates of prisoners.
Looking forward, there are several reforms the correctional facilities and the criminal
justice system can undergo to improve prison over-crowding. One significant transformation
could be reducing crime by increasing social programs. Implementing more social services can
reduce crime because statistics show there is a direct correlation between poverty and crime.
Approximately 40 million Americans are living in poverty. Therefore, addressing this issue may
potentially reduce crime. Furthermore, abolishing harsh mandatory minimum sentencing across
all States can help reduce prison-overcrowding. Countless non-violent offenders are serving
prolonged sentences because of these mandatory minimums, which means more inmates are
taking up the limited space in these facilities for longer. Lastly, focusing on rehabilitation over
retribution may alleviate prison-overcrowding. The recidivism rates of former convicts are high
in America; the inmates are placed in environments that do not facilitate learning or growth.
Thus, implementing more educational programs may ease the process of re-integration and
diminish recidivism rates.

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