ENG 120 Drilling of natural gas through Hydraulic fracturing Response

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1 page reading response. everything is clear in the pictures i attached. Thank you so much.

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Drilling for natural gas has gotten ahead of the science
A decade ago layers of shale lying deep underground supplied only
I percent of America’s natural gas. Today they provide 30 percent
Deillers are rushing to hydraulically fracture, or “frack,” shales in a
growing list of U.S. states. That is good news for national energy se-
curity, as well as for the global climate, because burning gas emits
Jess carbon dioxide than
burning coal. The benefits come with risks,
however, that state and federal governments have yet to grapple with
Public fears are growing about contamination of drinking water
supplies from the chemicals used in fracking and from the methane gas
itself. Field tests show that those worries are not unfounded. A Duke
University study published in May found that methane levels in dozens
of drinking-water wells within a kilometer (3,280 feet) of new fracking
sites were 17 times higher than in wells farther away. Yet states have let
companies proceed without adequate regulations. They must begin to
provide more effective oversight, and the federal government should
Nowhere is the rush to frack, or the uproar, greater than in New
York. In July, Governor Andrew Cuomo lifted a ban on fracking.
The State Department of Environmental Conservation released an
environmental impact statement and was to propose regulations
in October. After a public comment period, which will end in early
December, the department plans to issue regulations, and drilling most
likely will begin. Fracking is already widespread in Wyoming, Colorado,
Texas and Pennsylvania.
All these states are flying blind. A long list of technical questions
remains unanswered about the ways the practice could contaminate
drinking water, the extent to which it already has, and what the industry
could do to reduce the risks. To fill this gap, the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency is now conducting comprehensive field research.
Preliminary results are due in late 2012. Until then, states should put
the brakes on the drillers. In New Jersey, Governor Chris Christie set
an example in August when he vetoed a bill that would permanently
ban fracking, then approved a one-year moratorium so his state could
consider the results of federal studies. The EPA, for its part, could speed
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weapon in the political wars, with Republican swinging be
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Northeast, the gas companies are demonized as Satan incorporate
A few weeks ago, at around with John Rowe, one of the US
people in the energy business, and listened to him talk enth
about this windfall. He has no vested interest in this indeed is
might be hurt. But he knows how much shale gas could mean to
It would be a crime if we squandered this blessing.
From The New York Times. November 3, 2011 2011 The New York
nights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copy
United States. The printing copying, redistribution offer
Content without express written per
For Class Discussion
1. What types of evidence does Brooks present in support of his cam?
2. What assumptions and values underlie the criticism of those who do
fracking?
3. Like Richard Korman, Brooks argues that fossil fuels are necessary
renewable energy sources mature. For Brooks, how does shale gas mes
sure up against its fossil fuel counterparts?
4. How does Brooks address the potential dangers of shale gas extraction
What is the rhetorical effect of his language in these paragraphs?
5. How has this op-ed piece influenced your thinking about fracking and the
value of other new means to extract fossil fuels?
Safety First, Fracking Second
Scientific American
This editorial appeared in Scientific American on October 19, 2011. Scientific
American is the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States,
founded in 1845, and is produced in fourteen different languages. Its purpose
Resportes
Read all assigned enlys,
Choose to which to respond
. 250 Words
Opening Sentences
Author Full
Title”
Name : Essay
Successive why reference last
name only
“Gut reaction your opinion, thoughts,
reactions, comments – so what’
Do not summarize entre essay
If you do quote / summarize on
idea, give parenthetica! (Ch 43/4)
& bibliographic (665, 829) Citation
* if internet, 656, 9. ur 658 llo
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RC
In addition to bringing some rigor to the debate over taking the
federal government needs to establish common standards. Many
the gas industry say they are already sufficiently regulated by states
propose to extend a well operator’s liability for water quality out to
but this assurance is inadequate. For example, Pennsylvania regulator
2.500 feet from a well, even though horizontal bores from the central
well can stretch as far as 5,000 feet.
Scientific advisory panels at the Department of Energy and the EPA
have enumerated ways the industry could improve and have called
for modest steps, such as establishing maximum contaminant levels
these recommendations do not address the biggest loophole of all In
allowed in water for all the chemicals used in fracking. Unfortunately,
2005 Congress at the behest of the Vice President Dick Cheney
a former CEO of gas driller Halliburton-exempted fracking from
regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Congress needs to close
this so-called Halliburton loophole, as a bill co-sponsored by New York
State Representative Maurice Hinchey would do. The FRAC Act would
also mandate public disclosure of all chemicals used in fracking across
the nation.
Even the incomplete data we now have suggest specific safety
measures. First, the weakest link in preventing groundwater
contamination
is the concrete casing inside well bores (see “The Truth about Fracking.”
by Chris Mooney, on page 80). Inspection of casings should be legally
required. Second, the toxic fluid that is a major by-product of fracking is
routinely stored in open pits, which can overflow or leach into the soil.
It should be stored in tanks instead. Third, gas companies should inject
tracers with the fracking fluid so inspectors can easily see whether any of
the fluid ends up in the water streaming from residents’ faucets. Finally,
companies or municipalities should have to test aquifers and drinking-
water wells for chemicals before drilling begins and then as long as gas
extraction continues, so changes in groundwater are obvious.
It is in the industry’s interest to accept improved oversight. Public
opinion is turning against fracking. That is unfortunate, because more
natural gas could benefit everyone. With basic precautions, we can
enjoy both cleaner energy and clean water.
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For Class Discussion
1. In this proposal argument, what specific actions or policies are called for
by the editors before fracking continues?
2. What examples do the editors provide of science influencing political deci
sions, and vice versa?
3. How do the editors’ choice of words and examples signal that this piece
was written for a general audience rather than an audience composed of

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