How International Students & Professors Communicate Literature Review


I am working on a research paper about the way international students and professor communicate

Here are some details that will help you as writing the literature review:

A literature review

is one step beyond an annotated bibliography. You should take your annotated

bibliography and construct an argument about the research on this topic.

This argument should

a) provide a historical context for the topic, i.e., where did communication research about it

start? How did it start? What was it used to explain?

b) Explanation and definition of major concepts related to the topic.

c) trace the development of the research about the topic, i.e., what has it become? How has it

evolved? What is it now used to explain?

d) Explain the strengths and weaknesses of these various stages and applications of the research

about the topic, i.e., how has it been effective? How is it not effective?

e) Explain what the relevance of the research about this topic today, i.e., what relevance does it

have for communication today that either has not been researched yet, but should be? This

argument makes up your literature review.

The way to write a literature review is to write the section and then integrate quotes and citations and

quotes where needed to attribute credit and/or bolster what you have to say about each section. I have attached an example that will help you.


For this paper, please use at least 15 sources and cite them at the end and in the text. This is very important work. I will add this to the large paper. I will send you later the other part of the paper once I finish organize them.

Annotated Bibliography
Edwards, R. (2006). What’s in a Name? Chinese Learners and the Practice of Adopting
“English” Names. Language, Culture & Curriculum, 19(1), 90–103.
This is an article written by Edward which focusses on the widespread practise of
Chinese learners choosing to adopt or sometimes not adopting English and Anglicised names.
The data in this study was obtained through the use of interviews and questionnaires and both
teachers and students were analysed so as to correctly establish the reasons why the practise has
been on the rise and continues to increase amongst the institutions of higher learning. The paper
outlines how this practise is tied into the Chinese perceptions about themselves, their culture and
their best understanding and experience of the English language. Edward focusses on outlining
the strategies that are employed by the students in terms of complying to the practise or resisting
it and how these strategies are a means for the students to express their attitude regarding the
British culture and the English language. In addition, Edward expresses his findings about the
attitude of the teachers to the student’s names as it represents the merging of the culture of the
Chinese with the Western civilization. In conclusion, there is a crucial relationship between the
Chinese people and ELT which enhances the ability and adoption of English names.
Li, C. (2007). Why Are You Giggling? An Investigation of Effective Teaching Strategies
Toward International Students at the College Level. Conference Papers — International
Communication Association, 1. Retrieved from
This is an article that discusses the various effective strategies which can be implemented
to ensure an improvement in the overall performance of international students at the College
level. The population of international students amongst the institutions of higher learning in the
U.S. is increasing and these students are shown to experience lot of difficulties especially in the
form of adaptation to new culture and learning to communicate in English language. This study
by Li provides the strategies that professors can use to assist international students in their focus
of study especially in the field of Journalism and Mass Communication where they face a lot of
language difficulties. In this study, nine professors who have an experience in dealing with
international students and who have Ph.D. in Journalism and Mass Communication are
interviewed and the data obtained shows that most international students are inefficient and slow
in dealing with their professors. In order to improve the condition of these students, there is a
need for the education system to reach a mutual understanding and come up with trust-building
projects to enhance the bond between the students and the professors to improve their academic
performance. It is established that some professors consider language proficiency when they
grade students and the international students suffer a lot as a result of this. To ensure that the
relationship between the professors and the students is purely professional, there is a need to
avoid some dangers in mutual communication between professors and the international students.
Mansson, D. H. (2008). Improving Student and Instructor Success in Study Abroad Programs: A
Brief Report of Student Suggestions. Human Communication, 11(1), 17–25. Retrieved
This is a study which provides suggestions on how to improve the academic performance
of students who are doing their programs abroad and educates the instructors on how to give
students the best teaching practise and academic assistance. Mansson conducted a study on
undergraduate and graduate students by providing an open-ended questionnaire whereby they
were meant to give their opinion concerning the future of students who are studying abroad as
well as information concerning faculty members. The findings of the study show that the
students should be organized in a manner that allows easy student travelling, ensure availability
of the instructors, and to limit the group of students studying so as to enhance better interaction
and learning. In addition, the instructors should provide adequate and relevant information to
students, should dedicate themselves to teaching them some language skills, and should be role
models for the students but not in the extreme like parents.
Frymier, A. B., & Wanzer, M. B. (2003). Examining Differences in Perceptions of Students’
Communication with Professors: A Comparison of Students with and without
Disabilities. Communication Quarterly, 51(2), 174–191.
This is a study conducted by Frymier and Wanzer on the differences in perceptions of
students who have disabilities and those without disabilities while communicating with their
professors. The background information about the study was that persons with disabilities are,
most of the time, treated differently compared to people with no disabilities. This study involved
students with disabilities and those without and it was aimed at evaluating the stigma that
students who have disabilities face while interacting with their instructors. The participants
reported on how they felt concerning their interaction with their instructors. The findings of this
study were that students with disabilities had a different perception about their instructors as
opposed to those who had no disabilities.
Paul Grayson, J. (2011). Cultural capital and academic achievement of first generation domestic
and international students in Canadian universities. British Educational Research Journal,
37(4), 605–630.
This was a longitudinal survey that was conducted by Paul Grayson on college students
in a bid to evaluate how the first generation domestic and international students in the institutions
of higher learning in Canada were able to engage in the activities that contributed to their
academic achievement. Four universities in Canada were involved in this study. Paul based this
study on the Cultural reproduction theory which states that students are more likely to engage in
activities that contribute to their academic performance. It was established, from the study, that
the actual university experiences of the students varied based on their educational background
and that their experiences were not always relevant in the academic achievement of the students.
Rabia, H. A. (2017). A qualitative investigation of the factors affecting Arab international
students’ persistence in the United States. College Student Journal, 51(3), 347–354.
Retrieved from
This is a study that was done by Rabia which evaluated the factors affecting Arab
international students’ persistence in the United States in terms of facilitating their cultural and
academic adjustment while in this foreign state. This study involved 16 Arab international
students from various nations including Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Syria, Jordan, and
Iraq who were enrolled in two universities in the U.S. The findings of this study show that there
are various factors which assist the Arab students in beating their challenges in their education
which include family support, sufficient time, supportive faculty, friendship support, and
extracurricular activities while in the universities.
Andrade, M. S. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment
factors. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(2), 131–
This is a paper which describes how international students who study in English-speaking
countries face challenges in adjusting to the study environment and adapting ways to overcome
the issues that they face. The study identifies the various factors which influence how the
international students adapt to the new environment and how the adjustment challenges can be
attributed to the fact that they have different culture and poor English language proficiency. The
ability of international students to achieve academic success is affected by their proficiency in
English language, their educational background, and their academic skills. This study helps in
the understanding of the challenges facing international students and provides reasonable
Ladd, P. D., & Ruby, R. (1999). Learning Style and Adjustment Issues of International
Students. Journal of Education for Business, 74(6), 363-367.
Instructors have a role to play in helping international students succeed at the tertiary
level of education in the universities and other institutions of higher learning. A study done by
Ladd and Ruby established that instructors can determine the best ways for the students to be
taught, explaining to the students about these ways, and providing their preferred method of
learning style. In this study, the learning styles of the participants who were international
students doing an MBA program was analysed. It was established that even though 80 percent of
the students had learned through the method of lecturing in their countries of origin, the students
preferred to learn through direct experience.
Gruber, T., Reppel, A., & Voss, R. (2010). Understanding the characteristics of effective
professors: the student’s perspective. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 20(2),
175-190. doi:10.1080/08841241.2010.526356
This study by Gruber and Voss helps in the understanding of the characteristics of
effective professors. The researchers evaluated students’ perspective on their professors by
establishing the characteristics of professors which students do not really focus on and take for
granted. The study was conducted through the use of questionnaires and 63 students were
evaluated to reveal the findings. The results obtained show that there is a need for professors to
create a rapport with their students in teaching them; this was found to be a good personality
which was take for granted.
ANGELOVA, M., & RIAZANTSEVA, A. (1999). “If You Don’t Tell Me, How Can I
Know?”. Written Communication, 16(4), 491-525. doi:10.1177/0741088399016004004
This is an article that was written by Angelova and Riazantseva on the four major
challenges that international students face in terms of cultural backgrounds and language barrier
in adapting to the requirements of their courses while in their first year of studies in America.
The study was conducted through interviews, observing the participants, through reflective
journals kept by the participants, as well as through analysis of written samples. The findings
were that the international students face different challenges in their academic life and that they
needed assistance to adjust easily into their environment so as to succeed.
Lee, J. J. (2010). International students’ experiences and attitudes at a US host institution: Selfreports and future recommendations. Journal of Research in International Education,
9(1), 66–84.
This article by Lee evaluates the experiences of international students while studying at a
university in the United States of America to establish how these experiences influence their
lives. Lee intended to learn how international students are impacted by studying in another
country and how their experiences can assist the students studying in their home country. This
was a survey conducted in one large public university in Southwest US and it was found that the
perception of being treated unequally is one of the major factors that influences the attitude of
international students.
Zhai, L. (2004). Studying International Students: Adjustment Issues and Social Support. Journal
of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 11().
This is a study that focusses on the issues and needs that international students have in
their studies abroad. Zhai conducted a study on ten international students studying at The Ohio
State University by interviewing them. The results obtained show that there are various
challenges that international students face and these include coping with education in the U.S.,
language barrier, and differences in culture of the people. The international students found a lot
of help from their family and friends. It was suggested that providing students with academic
support, counselling the students accordingly, and helping them in solving their language
challenges encourages the international students to perform well.
Sample Literature Review – Theory: Rhetoric of Conversion
One method for changing individual values, beliefs, and attitudes that has proven
effective is conversion rhetoric. Rooted in the Christian tradition, conversion was first
recognized as a sudden, dramatic change in beliefs prompted by some revelatory moment,
sometimes even described as magical or mystical (Gillespie, 1991; Rambo, 1992). This
seemingly indescribable process or feeling began to be more systematically interrogated in
psychology and sociology, and eventually even in theology. As research in this field progressed,
the process was described in less nebulous terms as a change from one belief system, or lack of
beliefs, to one of faith in God (Gillespie, 1991; Rambo, 1992).
The process begins with feelings of anger, guilt, fear, or disillusionment (Gillespie,
1979). The self, or ego (from a psychological perspective), seeks a way to resolve these feelings.
From a conversion perspective, the solution comes from an external source, religion or
spirituality, that promises resolution and “a sense of well-being, elation, and understanding”
(Gillespie, 1979, p. 106). The ego necessitates “a process of symbolic conscious representation”
to undergo the conversion process (Gillepsie, 1979, p. 106). Rhetorically, such strategies have
been understood as “discourse issued by an evangelist-source which leads to a dramatic
modification of a listener’s self-concept” (Golden, Berquist, & Coleman, 1976, p. 212). This
perspective suggests the evangelist as the source of the solution to the disruption experienced by
the soon-to-be-converted.
While conversion rhetoric is still widely practiced in many religious contexts, it occurs in
secular contexts as well. Branham (1991) explores the role of the convert as a rhetorical strategy
in anti-abortion films, while Fabj (1998) examines the conversion process itself by investigating
the narratives of women in Italy who went from mob wives to state witnesses. Golden, Berquist,
and Coleman (1976) explicate three stages in the secular conversion process: exigency,
resolution, and indoctrination. The exigency is created when a person’s self-concept and value
system are at odds. The person feels dissatisfaction, psychological tension, and/or difficulty in
making decisions or taking action. Because a person desires coherence in their self-concept, and
therefore the narrative of their self, the person must resolve the exigency to end the conflict
(Griffin, 1990; MacIntyre, 2007). If the person chooses to change their self-concept and/or
values, conversion has begun.
Similarly, Branham (1991) argues that the process of conversion goes “from ignorance or
embrace of an alternate viewpoint, through confrontation with ‘the horrible truth’ of abortion and
personal responsibility, to recantation of past beliefs and an embrace of the political agenda and
spiritual values of the right-to-life campaign” (p. 413; emphasis in original). Fabj (1998) argues
that the process of conversion for the mob wives involved three topoi: intolerance of the existing
order, forgiveness of themselves, and promise to adhere to a new way of living. He further
contends that their process encourages others to undergo the same evolution, which is also how
Branham explains the representation of the convert in anti-abortions films is intended to function
for audiences. In any case, indoctrination must occur for the change to be lasting (Golden,
Berquist, and Coleman, 1976). For adherence to a new way of thinking to be permanent, the
person must learn and regularly practice new rules, behaviors, and ways of being and knowing.
Religious or secular conversions in the context of popular culture texts, though, often
operate to create not new believers, but to strengthen the beliefs of the already converted.
Branham (1991) asserts that much like the reluctant witness, the convert’s testimony is seen as
more credible than critics’ attacks as the convert has insider knowledge of the “other” side, but
still has rejected it. Rather than effectively changing the beliefs of pro-choice supporters though,
the role of the pro-life convert is most effective in reifying the anti-abortion viewer’s faith that
what they believe is morally right. Radwan (2004) uses constitutive rhetorical theory to explain
how a Contemporary Christian Music (CCM) song, “Shine,” “encourages a mode of Christian
identity” where its teen audience moves “from envy through conversion to radiance” through its
lyrics and aesthetic presentation (p. 187). Since its audience is made up primarily of teens who
sing along to the lyrics at their concerts, then, the conversion represented in the song operates
merely to increase the confidence of believers, not to convert non-believers. Pernia, San Pascual,
and Kwon (2006) found that despite producers’ intentions to convert new followers, viewers of
religious television shows primary reason for watching was to strengthen their faith, which
created “discipleship,” or a strengthening of faith in believers. They conclude, then, that “(a)s a
medium for faith-inspired shows, TV not only provides entertainment, but also serves as a
channel of socialization through which values and behavior are transmitted” (p. 496). These
examples suggest that the presence of conversion rhetoric in popular discourses serves the
purpose of promoting discipleship.
Branham, R. J. (1991). The role of the convert in Eclipse of Reason and The Silent Scream.
Quarterly Journal of Speech, 77(4), 407-426.
Fabj, V. (1998). Intolerance, forgiveness, and promise in the rhetoric of conversion: Italian
women defy the Mafia. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 84(2), 190-208.
Gillespie, V. B. (1979). Religious conversion and personal identity. Birmingham, AL: Religious
Education Press.
Gillespie, V. B. (1991). The dynamics of religious conversion. Birmingham, AL: Religious
Education Press.
Golden, J. L., Berquist. G. F., & Coleman, W. E. (1976). Chapter 14: The rhetoric of
conversion. In The Rhetoric of Western Thought (pp. 211-217). Dubuque, IA:
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
Griffin, C. J. G. (1990). The rhetoric of form in conversion narratives. Quarterly Journal of
Speech, 76(2), 152-162.
MacIntyre, A. (1984). The virtues, the unity of a human life and the concept of tradition. In After
Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, 2nd ed. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame.
Pernia, E. E., San Pascual, M. R., & Kwon, D. H. (2006). Religion in the box: Viewership of
religious television programs in the Philippines. Journal of Communication and Religion,
29(2), 484-510.
Radwan, J. (2004). Religious identity via pop music: “Shine”. Journal of Communication and
Religion, 27, 187-216.
Rambo, L. R. (1993). Understanding religious conversion. New Haven, CT: Yale University

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