I want an Excel Sheet with the requirements below for the Westbound

Description

please see the example for the EB. She want the exact same thing but for the WB and we should turn it as a Excel Sheet. all the numbers from the excel if from the power point, please read the power point. The end page of the power point is what she is expecting from us on the Home work. The first page of the Excel is the formulas sheet. Please pay attention to the Calculations.

Intersection Vol.
Movement 2, TH
Movement 5, LT
Movement 6, TH
Movement 6, RT
Movement 8, LT
Movement 8, RT
# of Lanes
Movement 2
Movement 5
Movement 6
Movement 8
A Street
850
200
1000
600
350
150
2
1
2
2
Adj Vol per Lane
Movement 2
Movement 5
Movement 6
Movement 8
`=B2/B10
`=IF(B11=1,B3/0.95,B3/0.92*B11))
`=(B4+(B5/0.85))/B12
`=(B6+B7)/(0.85*B13)
Critical Sum, CS
Reference Sum, RS
CS/RS
Xc
Lost Time
Cycle
`=MAX(B17+B18,B16)+B19
1539
`=B21/B22
0.85
12
`=(B24*B25)/(B24-(B21/B22))
Intersection Vol.
Movement 2, TH
Movement 5, LT
Movement 6, TH
Movement 6, RT
Movement 8, LT
Movement 8, RT
# of Lanes
Movement 2
Movement 5
Movement 6
Movement 8
Adj Vol per Lane
Movement 2
Movement 5
Movement 6
Movement 8
A Street B Street C Street
850
280
500
200
400
350
1000
500
475
600
650
550
350
250
1200
150
105
250
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
425
211
853
294
140
421
632
209
250
368
561
853
Critical Sum, CS
1358
1262
1782
Reference Sum, RS
1539
1539
1539
CS/RS
0.882122 0.820162 1.158149
Xc
0.85
0.85
0.85
Lost Time
12
12
12
Cycle
-318
342
-33
Intersection Vol. A Street B Street(a) B Street (b) C Street
Movement 2, TH
850
280
280
500
Movement 5, LT
200
400
400
350
Movement 6, TH
1000
500
500
475
Movement 6, RT Free
Free
650 Free
Movement 8, LT
350
250
250
1200
Movement 8, RT
150
105
105
250
# of Lanes
Movement 2
Movement 5
Movement 6
Movement 8
Adj Vol per Lane
Movement 2
Movement 5
Movement 6
Movement 8
Critical Sum, CS
Reference Sum, RS
CS/RS
Xc
Lost Time
Cycle
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
3
425
211
500
294
140
421
250
209
140
217
632
209
250
368
238
569
1005
1539
0.65
0.85
12
52
880
1539
0.57
0.85
12
37
1059
1539
0.69
0.85
12
63
1175
1539
0.76
0.85
12
117
Free RT turns on A, B, and C
Intersection Vol. A Street PM B Street PM C Street AM C Street PM
Movement 2, TH
1660
1075
500
940
Movement 5, LT
270
170
350
225
Movement 6, TH
765
345
475
510
Movement 6, RT
0
100
550
280
Movement 8, LT
110
80
0
0
Movement 8, RT
180
120
0
0
# of Lanes
Movement 2
Movement 5
Movement 6
Movement 8
Adj Vol per Lane
Movement 2
Movement 5
Movement 6
Movement 8
Critical Sum, CS
Reference Sum, RS
CS/RS
Xc
Lost Time
Cycle
OK
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
830
284
383
171
538
92
173
118
250
368
561
0
470
237
420
0
1001
1539
0.65
0.85
12
51
655
1539
0.43
0.85
12
24
929
1539
0.60
0.85
12
41
657
1539
0.43
0.85
12
24
OK
OK
OK
LESSON 8
INTERCHANGE RAMP
TERMINALS
CIV E 580 Spring 2019
Lima Saft, PhD, PE, PMP
Reminders:
2


No in-class meeting 3/27/19. On-line module
site is open.
Due on 4/10/19:





HW 7 (WB movements)
Final of the on-line module is due (HW 6)
Project Update and Draft Project Report
Presentation sign-ups
Research Paper and Presentations are on
4/17/19. Presentations – 5 minutes for 5
points extra credit
3
Interchange ramp terminals (HCM
2016, Chapter 23)

Overview – operational analysis of interchange
types
⬜ Diamond
⬜ Partial
cloverleaf (parclo)
⬜ Single-point urban interchanges


At-grade intersections
Not covered: freeway-to-freeway interchanges,
two-way stop-controlled intersections, signalized
intersections with a roundabout
Interchange type – diamond
4
Interchange type – parclo
5
Interchange type – trumpet
6
7

College at I-8

http://maps.google.com
The Diamond Interchange
8






Is relatively inexpensive, if considering only capital costs
Does not require signalization for initial modest volumes
Does not occupy too much space
As volumes grow, due to local development, total
interchange redesign becomes cost-prohibitive
Initial Diamond Interchange consideration does not take
into account “life-cycle” cost of traffic growth, delay
costs, accident costs, and land use
Signalization of diamond ramp interchange terminals is
used to address growing traffic problem
9





Issues with Diamond
Interchanges
Numerous conflicting movements
Short bridge over the highway limits left-turn lane
storage capacity
Traffic exiting the freeway tends to back up onto
the freeway, thus degrading its performance
These problems get worse when the intersection is
blocked by excess traffic on the arterial
This type of interchange should be avoided if
traffic growth is anticipated
Interchange Type
10

Type of interchange influences turning movements
⬜ Right
turn
⬜ Left turn – the most difficult in terms of efficiency, highvolume left-turn movement should be avoided



Interchange LOS is based on origin-destination
demand
Turning demand can be derived from origindestination demand
Freeway is assumed to be oriented N-S, arterial –
E-W
Intersection Spacing
11




Close proximity of intersections requires
analyzing them together
Distance limits the storage capacity for queuing
Presence of downstream queue may affect
discharge from the upstream intersection
Demand starvation refers to inadequate use of
capacity of downstream intersection because of
signalization patterns of upstream intersection
Demand Starvation (Exhibit 23-3)
12
LOS for O-D Movement
13




Measured by average control delay experienced
by this O-D pair demand through the interchange
LOS F occurs when volume to capacity (v/c) or
queue to storage (RQ) for any lane group that
contains this O-D exceeds 1
RQ = average per lane queue to storage ratio
within the lane group
Storage = length available for queuing vehicles on
a particular movement, per lane
14
LOS at Signalized Interchanges
(Exhibit 23-10)
LOS (when v/c 30-55
> 55-85
> 85-120
> 120
If v/c >1 or RQ>1 for any lane group = LOS F
Required Data – Geometric
15

Geometric
⬜ Area
type
⬜ N = number of lanes
⬜ W = average lane width, ft
⬜ G = grade, %
⬜ Existence of exclusive left- or right-turn lanes
⬜ La = storage length for each lane group, ft
⬜ D = internal storage distance between two intersections in
the interchange
⬜ Internal storage distances between interchange intersections
and adjacent closely spaced intersections, ft
⬜ Turning radii for all turning movements
Required Data – Traffic
16

Traffic
⬜V
= Demand volume by O-D or turning movement, veh/h
⬜ Right-turn on red flow rates
⬜ s0 = base saturation flow rate, pc/h/ln
⬜ PHF = peak hour factor
⬜ Heavy vehicle composition, % trucks and buses, % RVs
⬜ vped = approach pedestrian flow rates, ped/h
⬜ vb = approach bicycle flow rates, bicycles/h
⬜ NB = local bus stopping rate, buses/h
⬜ Nm = parking activity rate, maneuvers/h
⬜ AT = arrival type
⬜ Upstream filtering adjustment factor
⬜ SA = approach speed, mph
Required Data – Signalization
17

Signalization
⬜ Signal
control type
⬜ Phase sequence
⬜ C = cycle length (if appropriate), s
⬜ G = green times (if appropriate), s
⬜ Y = yellow + all-red change and clearance time, s
⬜ Offset (if appropriate)
⬜ Maximum, minimum green, passage times, phase recall (for
actuated control)
⬜ Pedestrian push button
⬜ Gp = minimum pedestrian green, s
⬜ Phase plan
Analysis Methodology
18
Step 1. Determine demands
Step 2. Determine lane groups
Step 3. Determine adjusted saturation flow rates
Step 4. Determine effective green adjustment due to
Interchange Operations
Step 5. Determine effective green adjustment due to closely
spaced adjacent intersections
Step 6. Determine performance of yield-controlled turns
Step 7. Determine v/c and queue storage ratios
Step 8. Determine control delay and ETT for each O-D
Step 9. Determine LOS
Saturation Flow Rates
19
s = s0 N fw fHVg fp fbb fa fRT fLT fLpb fRpb fLU fv
s0 = base saturation flow rate per lane = 1,900 veh/h/ln
N = number of lanes in lane group
fw = lane width adjustment factor
fHV = heavy vehicle and grade adjustment factor
fg = approach grade adjustment factor
fp = existence of parking activity adjustment factor
fbb = bus blockage adjustment factor
fa = area type adjustment factor
fRT = right-turning vehicle presence in the lane group adjustment factor
fLT = right-turning vehicle presence in the lane group adjustment factor
fLpb = pedestrian adjustment factor for left turns
fRpb = pedestrian-bicycle adjustment factor for right turns
fLU = lane utilization adjustment factor
f = traffic pressure adjustment factor
Saturation Flow Rate Factors
20



Traffic pressure adjustment factor = accounts
for more aggressive behavior of a large
number of drivers during high-demand traffic
conditions
More pronounced for the left-turn movements
fv = traffic pressure adjustment factor
(left turn)
(through and right turn)
Traffic Pressure Factor
21
Demand flow rate, v’I
(veh/cycle/ln)
Movement type
Left turn
Through and right turn
3.0
0.953
0.947
6.0
0.971
0.961
9.0
0.991
0.974
12.0
1.011
0.988
15.0
1.032
1.003
18.0
1.054
1.018
21.0
1.077
1.033
24.0
1.100
1.049
Adjustment Factors
22

Lane width adjustment
Average lane width, ft
Adjustment factor, fw
< 10.0
0.96
≥ 10.0-12.9
1.00
> 12.9
1.04
Adjustment Factors (cont.)
23

fHVg = adjustment factor for heavy vehicles and grade

Downhill:

Uphill or level:

fp = adjustment factor for existence of parking activity

fbb = adjustment factor for bus stop activity
N = number of lanes in lane group
Nm = parking maneuver rate next to lane group
Nb = bus stopping rate next to lane group
Adjustment Factors (cont.)
24
fLT = adjustment factor for left-turn vehicle
presence in a lane group
fRT = adjustment factor for right-turn vehicle
presence in a lane group
Both depend on the radius of curvature of the
turning lanes
25
Left and Right Turning Vehicle
Adjustment Factor
Radius of the travel path, ft
Movement type
Left and right turn
Through
25
0.817
1.00
50
0.899
1.00
100
0.947
1.00
150
0.964
1.00
200
0.973
1.00
250
0.978
1.00
300
0.982
1.00
350
0.984
1.00
LOS Determination
26


Done for each O-D
Has three components
⬜ Queue
storage ratios
⬜ v/c
ratios
Xi = vi /ci = vi /[si (gi/C)] = (vi C)/(si gi)
si = saturation flow rate for lane group i
gi = effective green time for lane group i
C = cycle length
⬜ Average
control delays – the same procedure as for
intersection capacity
Reminder: Peak-Hour Factor
27




Represents traffic flow variations within an hour
Typical values for freeways: 0.85 – 0.98
Lower margin is used for lower-volume conditions
Higher numbers are selected for urban freeways
Lane Utilization Factor
28

Lane utilization adjustment factor, uniformly
distributed if =1
=
1
% ∗
% = percent of the total approach flow in the
lane with the highest volume, expressed as a
decimal
N = number of lanes in lane group, ln
Intersection Numbering Scheme
29
Example and Homework #7
30



EB Movements in class
WB Movements homework, due April 10, 2019
Assume



Diamond ramps
Protected left turns
Through movements and right turns share a lane
Proposed Freeway, Distances and Grades
31
Arrows point in downhill direction
F1
2%
3%
2.0 mi
2.5 mi
A St.
B St.
1%
1%
2.0 mi
2.2 mi
C St.
F2
Intersection Turning Movements
32
A Street – Eastbound Ramps
PM
AM
850
200
1660
110
350
150
270
1000
600
180
765
110
Intersection Turning Movements – Homework #7
33
A Street – Westbound Ramps
AM
100
750
PM
250
100 1250 100
360
1300
140 735
220
570
Intersection Turning Movements
34
B Street – Eastbound Ramps
PM
AM
280
250
105
400
1075
170
80
500
650
120
345
100
Intersection Turning Movements – Homework #7
35
B Street – Westbound Ramps
AM
75
600
100
650
PM
150
260
545
80
125
300
450
700
Intersection turning movements
36
C Street – Eastbound Ramps
PM
AM
500
350
940
190
1200
250
225
475
550
150
510
280
Intersection turning movements – Homework #7
37
C Street – Westbound Ramps
AM
170
600
125
1550
PM
200
1250
590
250
240
460
400
575
Strategy for Ramp Type Selection
38

Assume









Surface street: 2 TH + RT + 1 LT lane
Ramp: 2 lanes
Xcm = 0.85
Solve for cycle length for AM peak
If C < 100 s, use diamond ramp
If C > 100 s or CS/RS > 1.00, consider dual LT, separate RT
lanes, etc.
If these fail to result in C < 100 s, consider loop ramp
Once all ramp types selected based on AM peak, check for
adequacy for PM peak
Spreadsheet on Blackboard for EB, adjust for WB
Adjusted Volume Per Lane
39
VLT
VL
VR
VT
VLT
VTH
fRT
fLT
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
fp =
NLT =
NTH =
VL
=
N LT  f LT
VTH
VR f RT + VT + VL f LT
=
N TH  f p
Left turn volume
Right turn volume
Through volume
Adjusted left turn volume per lane
Adjusted through volume per lane
Right turn factor; default is 0.85
Left turn factor; defaults is 0.95 for single lane, 0.92 for two lanes, 0.85 for
T-intersection
Parking adjustment factor. Assume no parking, fp = 1.00
Number of exclusive left turn lanes
Number of through lanes (including lanes shared with permitted right turns or
unopposed left turns. Assume at least two lanes on off ramps as they approach
intersections with surface streets.
Assumed Phasing
40
25
2
8
6
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Critical Sum of Per Lane Volumes
41
CS = Max(2, 5 + 6) + 8
Reference sum
PHF = 0.90 (ASSUMED)
RS = (1710)(PHF) = (1710)(0.90) = 1539 vph
Cycle length
C=
X cm L
CS
X cm −
RS
Lost time: assume 4 s/phase x 3 phases = 12 s
Cycle Calculations, AM Peak
42



See workbook for spreadsheet formulas
Spreadsheet results
A st
B st
C St
CS/RS
0.88
0.85
1.16
Cycle
-318
342
-33
Conclusion: all cycles unacceptable
Possible Modifications – A Street
43
A Street
AM
850
200
Separate lane, free turn?
350
150
1000
600
Possible Modifications – B Street
44
B Street
AM
Dual LT lane?
280
250
105
400
500
650
Separate RT lane, free RT?
Possible modifications – C Street
45
C Street
AM
3 lanes on off-ramp?
500
350
1200
Separate RT lane, free RT?
250
475
550
Possible Modifications – Summary
46

A Street
 Separate

right turn lane, free right turn
B Street
 Separate
right turn or
 Dual left turn

C Street
 Three
lanes on off-ramp
 Separate right turn NB with free right turn
New Cycle Calculations
47
CS/RS
A St
B St (a)
B St (b)
C St
0.65
0.57
0.69
0.76
52
37
63
117
Cycle

Conclusions

A Street


B Street


OK with free RT
Either option OK, but dual LT better because it does not conflict with
pedestrians
C Street

Cycle still too long – replace with loop ramp
C Street Layout
48
Loop ramp from EB freeway eliminates need for
phase 8 in cycle
Check Cycles for PM Volumes
49
CS/RS
Cycle

A St, PM
B St PM
C St, AM
C St, PM
0.65
0.43
0.60
0.43
51
24
41
24
Conclusion: All OK
Recommended Design
50

A Street
 Diamond

B Street
 Diamond

Ramp, free RT to ramp
Ramp, dual LT lane
C Street
 Loop
ramp for freeway exit; control by yield sign
Example on BlackBoard
51

Answer the following questions:





Signal phasing – order and length
Signal cycle length
Adjusted saturation flow rates for all movement
groups
Queue storage and control delay for all
movement groups
Level of Service for each approach and
intersection as a whole

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