IES300 Chapman Who Benefits? Evolving Language Of Inclusion In Higher Education

Description

attached is the article and this is the response questions:

1.How is “interest convergence” defined in Harris et al.’s article? Why is it important in examining inclusion initiatives? (pp. 22-23)

2.What are the drawbacks of racially minoritized students being treated like “native informants”? (p. 24)

3.According to Harris et al., why don’t social justice initiatives always work in institutions of higher education? (pp. 27-28)

4.In what ways do popular social justice experiences like the Privilege Walk and the Tunnel of Oppression perpetuate a deficit-based narrative of communities of color? (p. 28)


5.What criticisms do Harris et al. offer for the inadequacy of the concept of inclusion excellence and the ways in which it seeks to commodify diversity? (pp. 31-32)


Who Benefits?: A Critical
Race Analysis of the
(D)Evolving Language
Of Inclusion in
Higher Education
By Jessica C. Harris, Ryan P. Barone,
and Lori Patton Davis
T
he primary purpose of this paper is to expand the
ways in which educators and scholars employ the
concepts of diversity, social justice, and inclusive
excellence in relation to racial inclusivity. Our goals are to help educators identify
and acknowledge the intentional and unintentional consequences of maintaining
white supremacy within higher education, despite espoused efforts to dismantle
racism.1 For the sake of clarity and consistency, we refer to all three of these concepts—diversity, social justice, and inclusive excellence—in terms of race-based
inclusion initiatives. Our focus on race is rooted in the ever-present role of race
and racism in the academy, and in the sustained attempts to either avoid or dilute
Dr. Jessica C. Harris is a lecturer in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at the
University of Kansas. Her research focuses on critical approaches to sexual assault on the college
campus, multiraciality in higher education, and utilizing critical race theory to critique systemic
inequities in educational contexts.
Ryan P. Barone, Ph.D., is the director of Student Leadership and Development at Aims
Community College in Greeley, Colorado. His research interests include realizing socially just
polices and practices in student affairs in higher education.
Dr. Lori D. Patton is associate professor of Higher Education and Student Affairs in the
Indiana University School of Education. Her research interests broadly focus on the following
areas related to postsecondary contexts: race and racism, critical race theory, college student development, and equity and diversity initiatives.
W I NT E R 2015
TH O U G H T & AC TI O N
21
S P ECIA L FO CUS : E QUI T Y, DI VE RS I T Y, A ND S OCI A L J U STI C E
them.2 Given the emphasis on race and racism, we employ critical race
theory (CRT) to demonstrate how diversity, social justice, and inclusive
excellence, as well as the efforts that stem from them, are often co-opted
to promote agendas that maintain the status quo and uphold white privilege, rather than serve racially minoritized people.3
White leaders typically
tolerate advances toward
racial inclusion as long
as those advances are
not too severe and do not
disrupt the status quo.
CRI T ICAL RACE
THEORY AS A TOOL
O F A N A LY S I S
CRT traces its origins to critical
legal studies, and serves as a racebased epistemology uniquely suited
for examining the evolution of the
language framing inclusion in the
U.S.4 Increasingly, CRT has been
used to facilitate critical examinations of systemic racism throughout
U.S. education; therefore, it also
provides a unique lens for analyzing higher education’s language of inclusion.5 One tenet of CRT that explicitly relates to this analysis is interest
convergence, a concept that explores how advances for people of color
are tolerated only when these advances benefit white society at similar
or greater rates.6 Viewing the rhetoric of educational inclusion through
a CRT and interest-convergence perspective exposes how this rhetoric
may provide more gains for the white academy than it does for those they
claim to serve (i.e., students, faculty, and administrators of color).
Interest Convergence
Derrick Bell asserted that gains in racial equity are advanced only
when it benefits white society.7 White leaders typically tolerate advances
toward racial inclusion as long as those advances are not too severe and
do not disrupt the status quo. (For example, see the 1993 case of Lani
Guinier, whose nomination to head the Justice Department’s Civil Rights
Division was abandoned by President Bill Clinton when her ideas for
empowering black Americans were seen as “too radical.”)8 In other words,
advancement toward racial equity may occur, but only in an incremental
fashion. This desire for incrementalism stifles the more drastic systemic
changes needed to make higher education and society more equitable.
22
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L
WH O B EN EF IT S ?: A CRIT ICA L RA CE A N A LY S IS O F T H E ( D ) EV O LV IN G
LA N G U A G E O F IN CLU S IO N IN H IG H ER ED U CA T IO N
Interest convergence is used as the primary lens of analysis throughout
the remainder of this discussion because it captures the process whereby
inclusion initiatives emerge with great intentions and expectations, but do
not end with the actualization of equity. Crenshaw noted, “Critical race
projects have occupied both deconstructionist and interventionist spaces… Critical Race Theory, both
in its traditional interactions and
Inclusion initiatives
in an expanded articulation, can
and should disrupt racial settlement
emerge with great
and push for conceptual tools.”9
intentions and
Diversity, social justice, and more
recently inclusive excellence, have
expectations, but
been touted as conceptual tools
do not end with the
that, by definition, are used to disactualization of equity.
rupt racial settlement. However,
examining these conceptual tools
within a CRT framework, and
more specifically with interest convergence, reveals how these inclusion initiatives afford procedural rights
but not substantive outcomes. Students of color may be given access to
higher education, but they are not set up for success once they arrive on
campus. Racial inclusion initiatives also focus on equality as a process
rather than an outcome—and, in doing so, ignore inequities of the past to
focus on future, individual, and isolated offenses against people of color.10
In this analysis we use interest convergence to examine the (de)volving
language of inclusion in U.S. higher education.
R A C E – B A S E D I N C L U S I V I T Y I N U . S . E D U C AT I O N
Diversity
The concept of campus diversity emerged in the 1970s, and typically
was framed as a numbers game focused almost exclusively on increasing
the totals and, to a lesser extent, the percentages, of racially minoritized
students on college campuses.11 In the 1980s, a resurgence occurred
around race-based inclusivity with a focus on “diversity” and its associated
benefits for society, broadly, and higher education, specifically.12 This relatively new concept focused primarily on the benefits for white students of
“experiencing” racial diversity and having visible representation of people
WIN T ER 2 0 1 5
T H O U G H T & A CT IO N
23
S P ECIA L FO CUS : E QUI T Y, DI VE RS I T Y, A ND S OCI A L J U STI C E
of color in higher education. Seen in institutional mission statements,
policies, and other campus artifacts, the term “diversity” is used in multiple contexts serving myriad functions.13
The contemporary concept of diversity in higher education may
be best known for its appearance in the discourse surrounding the ruling of the 1978 Supreme Court
case Regents of the University of
While an increase in
California v Bakke and then again
in 2003 in Grutter v Bollinger. In
student diversity likely
1978, Justice Powell ruled that
generated more crossthe essentials for student learning
would only be tangible amongst
cultural learning, interest
a diverse student body and that
convergence informs the
the training of tomorrow’s leaders
question “learning for
rests on exposure to diverse peoples.14 This reasoning soon became
whom?”
known as the diversity rationale for
affirmative action.15 Recently, and
possibly due to the over-use of the term, scholars have suggested that
“‘diversity’ has become a buzzword in higher education” without significant progressive utility.16
CRT Analysis of Diversity
While an increase in student diversity likely generated more crossrace cultural learning on college campuses, interest convergence informs
the question “learning for whom?” Despite diversity efforts in higher
education, racially minoritized students often are treated like “native
informants” in the classroom, and the benefit of racial diversity at
Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs) becomes unidirectional, with
racially minoritized students carrying the burden of educating their white
peers.17 Interest convergence also critiques the groups that sometimes
gain access to higher education through diversity-rationalized affirmative action admissions programs. Scholars have found that people with
multiple marginalized identities, such as women of color, have not benefited from affirmative action at the same rate as white women and men
of color.18 Moreover, students (the vast majority of whom are white) are
much more likely to benefit from legacy admissions preferences than are
people of color to be assisted by affirmative action.19
24
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L
WH O B EN EF IT S ?: A CRIT ICA L RA CE A N A LY S IS O F T H E ( D ) EV O LV IN G
LA N G U A G E O F IN CLU S IO N IN H IG H ER ED U CA T IO N
When colleges employ diversity principles to enact access, they
typically are not required to interrogate the institutional whiteness
prevalent in the structure, practices, and assumptions of PWIs.20 This
means that colleges facilitate access on a procedural level, not on a
substantive level. For example, granting access to higher education for
students of color is a procedural
right. Unfortunately, this access is
Token incrementalism
not substantive; it does not guarantee students’ success within higher
in terms of racial
education. Furthermore, procedural
heterogeneity does
rights provide “proof that society is
indeed just” to individuals of color
not substantially
and their allies, quelling their fight
threaten generations of
for equal access to education, and
institutionalized racial
more importantly, disruption of the
21
status quo.
privilege.
Interest convergence also offers
a critique of the commodification
of diversity for institutional benefit, or the practice of marketing structural/visual diversity to attract students-as-consumers. It also complicates the
manner in which the socially constructed concept of race is manipulated
to uphold power structures. Institutional leaders, who are overwhelmingly white, may manipulate and construct a diverse student body to serve
institutional needs.22 A striking example of this manipulation was the
University of Wisconsin–Madison’s 2000 decision to Photoshop a picture
of a black student into promotional materials.23 Subsequently, 100,000
admissions booklets were distributed with a fabricated illusion of racial
diversity.24 Similar allegations recently have arisen at Scripps College,
where, according to current students, racially minoritized students were
“duped” into attendance by a misrepresentation of racial inclusion on the
institutional website and recruitment materials.25
Using the concept of diversity to racially integrate campuses is largely
palatable to administrators in power because token incrementalism in
terms of racial heterogeneity does not substantially threaten generations
of institutionalized racial privilege. Bell and Hartman explained that this
perspective of diversity, “starts from the dominance of white worldviews,
and sees the culture, experiences, and indeed lives, of people of color only
as they relate to or interact with the white world.”26 This definition of
WIN T ER 2 0 1 5
T H O U G H T & A CT IO N
25
S P ECIA L FO CUS : E QUI T Y, DI VE RS I T Y, A ND S OCI A L J U STI C E
diversity centers whiteness as normative, or an ideal way of being, forcing
racially minoritized students to assimilate to white culture to succeed.
Unfortunately, traversing and learning the norms of white culture may be
detrimental to racially minoritized students, as they are forced to consign
their own culture to the margins.
With the broadening of diversity as an umbrella concept to
Different from diversity,
encompass many social identities
beyond race, the political impact
social justice necessitates
of diversity as a means for facilian analysis of power and
tating systemic change is somewhat limited. Actions justified
privilege on individual
through stated goals of diversity
and institutional levels.
without acknowledgement of the
longstanding effects of privilege,
power, and oppression equate to
an inability to facilitate meaningful
change toward inclusion on college
campuses. In part due to the failure of diversity efforts to make any real
change, the concept of social justice gained prominence in U.S. higher
education during the latter half of the 20th century.
The Fluidity of Social Justice
The concept of social justice has changed and adapted since John
Rawls first introducted it in 1971.27 Rawls likened social justice to distributive justice, or the equal distribution of goods and services to all.
However, 20 years after Rawl’s conceptualization, distributive justice
fell short in addressing the systemic and institutional structures that
determined distribution of resources, including those in higher education.28 From this realization came a re-envisioning of social justice, one
“where assimilation to majority or dominant cultural norms is no longer
the price of equal respect.”29 Different from diversity, social justice necessitates an analysis of power and privilege on individual and institutional
levels.30 While diversity still has social relevance on its own, when used in
tandem with social justice it conveys a broader conceptualization beyond
numerical representation toward quality of interactions and cross-cultural
engagement.
Social justice education draws much of its pedagogy, epistemology,
26
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L
WH O B EN EF IT S ?: A CRIT ICA L RA CE A N A LY S IS O F T H E ( D ) EV O LV IN G
LA N G U A G E O F IN CLU S IO N IN H IG H ER ED U CA T IO N
and instructional practices from Women’s Studies, Queer Studies, and
Ethnic Studies. A frequently used definition is:
Social justice is both a process and a goal. The goal of social justice
is full and equal participation for all groups in a society that is mutually shaped to meet their needs. Social justice includes a vision of
society in which the distribution
of resources is equitable and all
members are physically and psyBy focusing more
chologically safe and secure.31
Social justice education has
gained tremendous momentum as
a component of student learning in
U.S. colleges and universities.32
on
privilege, power, and
oppression, social justice
has a more activist
trajectory than previous
concepts.
CRT Analysis of Social Justice
A key distinction between
diversity efforts and social justice
initiatives is that the former often
focus on equal distribution and numbers, while the latter are more
concerned with systems of power and inequity. “It does not necessarily
follow that a diverse institution will either address all the concerns faced
by students of color or work toward greater equity and social justice,”
Castagno and Lee explained.33 By focusing more on privilege, power, and
oppression, social justice has a more activist trajectory than previous concepts. Nonetheless, its potency for transformation and its comprehensive
goals of inclusivity, contextualized by the history of racial oppression in
the U.S., still can be mitigated or appropriated by dominant educational
narratives.34
An interest-convergence analysis of social justice in higher education reveals policies and practices that are not always in the best interest of racially minoritized students. For instance, initiatives contained
within the umbrella of social justice in higher education have become so
expansive that they often function to limit critical discussions about race
and racism. One such initiative is the hiring of diversity officers or the
implementation of offices that focus on campus diversity. While seemingly helpful, these offices and positions often allow institutions to compartmentalize their efforts toward combating racism. The results, such as
diversity mission statements or climate assessment data that is minimally
WIN T ER 2 0 1 5
T H O U G H T & A CT IO N
27
S P ECIA L FO CUS : E QUI T Y, DI VE RS I T Y, A ND S OCI A L J U STI C E
(or never) used, tend to be token gestures that place the burden of this
systemic work on a few. Functional areas charged with focusing on diversity or social justice are caught in a double bind. “The concern is rooted
in the institution’s self-interest of being a ‘better and more competitive’
institution rather than in a social justice rationale.”35 The individuals and
campus offices charged with implementing a social justice change are
Well-intentioned social
often undermined, serving to perpetuate a racial status quo rooted in
justice programming
a numerical diversity agenda.36
may also reinforce
The well-intentioned social
justice programming in higher
essentialism—the notion
education may also reinforce essenthat a group of people
tialism—the notion that a group
share or can be defined by
of people share or can be defined
by one experience— through culone experience.
tural awareness events that promote
“celebration” of cultural and racial
diversity on campus without analysis of privilege, power, and oppression.37 The critique of systems of oppression with a focus on intersecting
identities is essential in social justice engagement.38 Therefore, popular
awareness-raising cultural events, often labeled as social justice programming, such as the serving of ethnic food, cultural dance performances, and
events such as Martin Luther King Jr. celebrations, are in fact diversity
events, and not social justice programming.
Many popular social justice experiences facilitated on college campuses, when analyzed from an interest-convergence perspective, teach white
students at the cost or expense of racially minoritized students. Programs
such as “privilege walks,” where students take actual steps across a room to
mark their personal and group privileges, typically result in white people
in the front of a room and racially minoritized students in the back. This
social positioning is likely not surprising for racially minoritized students,
and facilitators often devote substantial time to helping white students
process through the associated guilt for being at the front of the group.
Similar patterns can manifest in other co-curricular social justice programs such as one-time activities and simulations with students (e.g.,
Tunnel of Oppression).39 Often these programs perpetuate a deficit-based
narrative of communities of color.40 Moreover, programming under the
28
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L
WH O B EN EF IT S ?: A CRIT ICA L RA CE A N A LY S IS O F T H E ( D ) EV O LV IN G
LA N G U A G E O F IN CLU S IO N IN H IG H ER ED U CA T IO N
social justice umbrella focused on simply presenting stereotypical cultural
artifacts (e.g., “Food, Festivals, and Fetish”) make institutions appear committed to social justice, while undermining its very ideas.41
While the definition of social justice by Adams, Bell, and Griffin
ideally represents systemic institutional transformation, the implementation of social justice on many
college campuses has followed a
Definitional uncertainty,
trajectory similar to diversity in that
its radical aspirations remain unremainstream cooptation,
alized.42 Definitional uncertainty,
and the allure of a sexy
mainstream cooptation, and the
allure of a sexy buzzword all limit
buzzword all limit
the impact of the social justice conthe impact of the social
cept. In part to remedy the deficitjustice concept.
based nature of diversity efforts and
to build on social justice principles,
inclusive excellence was introduced.
Inclusive Excellence
In 2005, the Association for American Colleges and Universities
(AAC&U) commissioned three separate reports that pointed out structural barriers within inclusion initiatives that continue to deter student
success. First, institutions create multiple diversity initiatives in isolation,
rather than in collaboration with one another.43 Second, campus constituents do not recognize the connection between diversity and educational excellence. The AAC&U argued that racially minoritized students
would succeed in college when an inclusion framework that incorporates
diversity at its core is actualized. Third, the ever-widening achievement
and opportunity gap for racially minoritized students “signals failure, not
only for the individual students affected but also for the colleges and universities they attend and the educational system as a whole.”44 Last, the
affirmation for the value of diversity in higher education was seen in the
rulings in the University of Michigan Supreme Court cases and largely
upheld in the more recent Fisher v. Texas case.45
The concept of inclusive excellence pulls together the initiatives
and rhetoric surrounding inclusion of the last 45 years. It encompasses
diversity, but seemingly moves past its initial conceptualizations. With
inclusive excellence, diversity extends beyond student body composition
WIN T ER 2 0 1 5
T H O U G H T & A CT IO N
29
S P ECIA L FO CUS : E QUI T Y, DI VE RS I T Y, A ND S OCI A L J U STI C E
and examines “engagement across racial and ethnic lines comprised of a
broad set of activities and initiatives.”46 While the word “diversity” can
be easily found throughout AAC&U’s publications, “social justice” is not
often mentioned. Instead, equity is linked to social justice. According to
AAC&U, equity is “a matter of social justice” that addresses the quality,
not the quantity, of resources.47 The
history of language and the framing
This cooptation of racialof race-based inclusivity concepts
in higher education are extensive
justice organizations
and ever expanding. It is for this
is not limited to Ford;
reason that we argue for applying
a critical inspection of the meaning
collectively, major U.S.
and value of diversity, social jusphilanthropies, “act in the
tice, and inclusive excellence in the
long-range interests of the
academy. This work is necessary to
better comprehend how these concorporate world.”
cepts have been positioned.
CRT Analysis of Inclusive Excellence
One of the most interesting aspects of the AAC&U’s papers is how
and through whom these documents, and therefore inclusive excellence,
came to fruition. The Ford Foundation funded the inclusive excellence literature.48 Their support is extremely relevant because the Ford
Foundation, which many may categorize as a liberal foundation, has a history of involvement in counterinsurgency programs in the U.S. and other
countries.49 In the 1960s, the Foundation began investing large amounts
of money in the Congress of Racial Equality and other civil rights organizations, such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
and the National Urban League, in hopes of calming growing racial
unrest in U.S. cities.50 Interest convergence was exposed when the Ford
Foundation gave “massive help” to urban black communities so that racial
tension would not ignite the dissolution of U.S. cities, the rebuilding of
which would fall to whites, not blacks.51 In essence, the Ford Foundation
invested time and money in race-based organizations to conquer, divide,
and “channel and control the black liberation movement and forestall
future urban revolts.”52
This cooptation of racial-justice organizations is not limited to Ford;
collectively, major U.S. philanthropies, “act in the long-range interests of
30
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L
WH O B EN EF IT S ?: A CRIT ICA L RA CE A N A LY S IS O F T H E ( D ) EV O LV IN G
LA N G U A G E O F IN CLU S IO N IN H IG H ER ED U CA T IO N
the corporate world. Their trustees and staff are typically members of the
power elite, but they have added blacks, women, Hispanics, and others to
broaden support and deflect criticism.”53 Higher education is not immune
to this cooptation and interest convergence may be present in the funding
and implementation of inclusive excellence on college campuses.
While this paper focuses on
concepts related to inclusion, it is
The creation of an award
noteworthy that inclusive excellence does not often mention the
to recognize inclusive
intersections of race with other
achievements quantifies
identities. The AAC&U’s almost
exclusive focus on race and racism
and commodifies inclusive
is new to the rhetoric of inclusion,
excellence, making it
but its focus on this social identity
seem measurable and
and system of oppression does not
account for the complexity of interachievable.
secting identities and oppressions,
resulting in inclusive excellence’s
inability to fully address and break down all barriers to realize inclusive
education.54 Additionally, the three AAC&U documents do not aim
to address the systemic oppression deeply embedded in the majority of
higher education institutions today. For example, in Making Diversity
Work on Campus, Milem and colleagues stressed the importance of hiring
faculty of color because it diversifies the professoriate and because these
individuals “are also more likely than other faculty to include content
related to diversity in their curricula and to utilize active learning and
student-centered teaching techniques.”55 Meanwhile, as faculty of color
enact inclusive pedagogy in their classrooms and carry the onus of inclusion, the authors of the documents would allow “other faculty” (i.e., white)
to continue their exclusive educational practices.
Several U.S. institutions of higher education have adopted the inclusive excellence concept on their campuses. For example, the University
of Missouri has begun awarding faculty and staff for their work with
inclusive excellence. However, these types of awards may obscure true
racial progress. The creation of an award to recognize inclusive achievements quantifies and commodifies inclusive excellence, making it seem
measurable and achievable. In other words, these awards purport that one
only needs to do so much to achieve inclusivity. The commodification of
WIN T ER 2 0 1 5
T H O U G H T & A CT IO N
31
S P ECIA L FO CUS : E QUI T Y, DI VE RS I T Y, A ND S OCI A L J U STI C E
WH O B EN EF IT S ?: A CRIT ICA L RA CE A N A LY S IS O F T H E ( D ) EV O LV IN G
LA N G U A G E O F IN CLU S IO N IN H IG H ER ED U CA T IO N
inclusive excellence and its economic benefit conferred on the dominant
culture is also apparent in the AAC&U and the American Council on
Education’s consulting and training fees. Additionally, the proceeds from
these fees benefit individuals and organizations, the majority of whom are
white. As Bell noted, “once again, the rhetoric obscures the issues” allowing for the subtle maintenance of structures that uphold white privilege
and supremacy to remain as the building blocks of higher education.56
CHALLENGING ENTRENCHED SYSTEMS
“Nobody will hurt you,” rubber floor mat, by Terri Lindbloom, professor of sculpture at
Florida State University. For more of Lindbloom’s work, see www.unfold.space.
32
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L
Within the last 45 years, activist-scholars have envisioned radical
reform in higher education to meaningfully restructure the antiquated
views on curricula, policies and procedures, and pedagogies originally
constructed for and by white men. However, these radical calls for new
educational efforts often have been co-opted and systematized by institutions and people in power, resulting in limited progressive aims.57 An
incremental approach to inclusion without simultaneously challenging
institutional hegemony will have, at best, a null or, at worst, a negative
impact toward a vision for equity in higher education.
We assert that the devolving language of racial inclusions has supported this incremental approach to change. “Well-intentioned policies
committed to creating a more inclusive campus climate may unwittingly
reinforce practices that support exclusion and inequity.”58 Jargon-laden
diversity statements, policies, and commitments, which are not explicitly critical of systems of institutionalized privilege, are destined to
fail. “Higher education as a whole…may well be performing contradictory functions—for example, bolstering and reproducing privilege and
inequality at the same time as they are creating new knowledge of benefit
to all.”59 As explored above, these contradictory functions often are found
in the rhetoric of diversity, social justice, and inclusive excellence.
Understanding the trajectory of inclusivity rhetoric in higher education can help educators become aware of the need to challenge entrenched
belief systems while also moving them toward acknowledging their own
complicity. Critical race theory can help this cause and “develop a
broader project, one that interrogates the limitations of contemporary
race discourse both in terms of its popular embodiment and its epistemic
foundations.”60 One way to meet this challenge is through identifying and
naming the hegemony in the academy that privileges the status quo and,
by extension, those individuals with generational privilege in U.S. society.
WIN T ER 2 0 1 5
T H O U G H T & A CT IO N
33
WH O B EN EF IT S ?: A CRIT ICA L RA CE A N A LY S IS O F T H E ( D ) EV O LV IN G
LA N G U A G E O F IN CLU S IO N IN H IG H ER ED U CA T IO N
SPE C I AL F OC U S : E Q U I T Y, D I V E R S I T Y, A N D S O C I A L JU ST ICE
“Identifying dominant discourses that reflect and shape contemporary
images of diversity can provide another lens for understanding diversity
in higher education.”61 The goals of diversity and social justice in higher
education have not been realized: Do we need newly articulated movements such as inclusive excellence? Who benefits from this evolution?
Educators should view the (de)volving language and policies of inclusion
with skepticism, while critically examining its potential and utility in
higher education.
END NOTES
1. Brennan and Naidoo, “Higher Education and the Achievement (and/or prevention) of
Equity and Social Justice,” pp. 287-302; and North, “More than Words? Delving into the
Substantive Meaning(s) of ‘Social Justice’ in Education,” pp. 507-35.
2. Harper, “Race without Racism: How Higher Education Researchers Minimize Racist
Institutionalized Norms,” pp. 9-29.
3. We use the term racially minoritized and not racial minority, “to signify the social
construction of underrepresentation and subordination in U.S. social institutions,
including colleges and universities. Persons are not born into a minority status nor are they
minoritized in every social context…Instead, they are rendered minorities in particular
situations and institutional environments that sustain an overrepresentation of whiteness.”
See Harper, “Race without Racism: How Higher Education Researchers Minimize Racist
Institutionalized Norms,” p. 9.
4. See Bell, And We Are Not Saved: The Elusive Quest for Racial Justice; and Delgado and
Stefancic, Critical Race Theory: An Introduction.
20. Taylor, “Critical Race Theory and Interest Convergence in the Backlash Against Affirmative
Action: Washington State and the Initiative 200,” pp. 539-60.
21. Bell, Silent Covenants: Brown V. Board of Education and the Unfilled Hopes for Racial Reform,
p. 56.
22. Owen, “Privileged Social Identities and Diversity Leadership in Higher Education,” pp. 185207.
23. Wade, “Doctoring Diversity: Race and Photoshop.”
24. Ibid. The cut-and-pasted student, Diallo Shabazz, sued and won $10 million, which he
pledged to direct toward recruiting racially minoritized students throughout the University of
Wisconsin system, though ultimately much of the money never went to diversity initiatives.
25. Park, “Microaggressive Scripps: An Open Letter to the Scripps Community.”
26. Bell and Hartmann, “Diversity in Everyday Discourse: The Cultural Ambiguities and
Consequences of ‘Happy Talk,’” p. 907.
27. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice.
28. Fraser, “Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics: Redistribution, Recognition, and
Participation, 1996.”
29. Ibid, p. 3.
30. Adams, et al., eds. Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook.
31. Ibid, p. 1.
32. See Adams, et al., op cit; and Reason and Davis, “Antecedents, Precursors, and Concurrent
Concepts in the Development of Social Justice Attitudes and Actions.”
33. Castagno and Lee, “Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher Education: Using Tribal
Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an Analytic Tool,” p. 4.
34. Pasque, American Higher Education, Leadership, and Policy: Critical Issues and the Public Good.
5. Ladson-Billings and Tate, “Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education,” pp. 47-68.
35. Castagno and Lee, op cit, p. 5.
6. Bell, “Brown v. Board of Education and the Interest-convergence Dilemma,” pp. 518-33.
36. Pasque, op cit.
7. Ibid.
37. Grillo, “Anti-Essentialism and Intersectionality: Tools to Dismantle the Master’s House,” pp.
16-30.
8. The New York Times, “The Lani Guinier Mess.”
9. Crenshaw, “Twenty Years of Critical Race Theory: Looking Back to Move Forward,” p.
1351.
10. Crenshaw, “Race, Reform, and Retrenchment: Transformation and Legitimation in
Antidiscrimination Law,” pp. 247-84.
11. See Patton and Hannon, “Collaboration for Cultural Programming: Engaging Culture
Centers, Multicultural Affairs, and Student Activities Offices as Partners,” pp. 139-154; and
Smith, Diversity’s Promise for Higher Education: Making it Work.
12. See Berrey, “Why Diversity became Orthodox in Higher Education, and How it Changed
the Meaning of Race on Campus,” pp. 573-96; and Perlmutter, “Power and Privilege: Why
Justice Demands more than Diversity,” pp. 245-55.
13. Wilson, et al., “Mission and Diversity Statements: What they do and do not say,” pp. 125-39.
14. Regents of University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978).
15. Chang, “Reconsidering the Diversity Rationale,” pp. 6-13.
16. Patton, et al., “Introduction to the Emergent Approaches to Diversity and Social Justice in
Higher Education Special Issue,” p. 271.
17. Hooks, Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom, p. 3.
18. See Guerrero, “Affirmative Action: Race, Class, Gender, and Now,” pp. 246-55; and Herring
and Henderson, “From Affirmative Action to Diversity: Toward a Critical Diversity
Perspective,” pp. 629-43.
34
19. Wise, Affirmative Action: Racial Preference in Black and White.
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L
38. See Adams, et al., op cit; Reason and Davis, op cit.
39. This is an interactive experience in which participants walk through a “tunnel” of oppression,
which are depicted through acting, pictures, monologues, and such.
40. Gorski, “Complicity with Conservatism: The De-politicizing of Multicultural Education,”
pp. 163-77
41. Ibid.
42. Adams, et al., op cit.
43. Williams, et al., Toward a Model of Inclusive Excellence and Change in Postsecondary
Institutions.
44. Ibid, pp. vii-viii.
45. Fisher v. University of Texas, 570 U.S. 11-345 (2013).
46. Milem, et al., Making Diversity Work on Campus: A Research-based Perspective, p. 4.
47. Association of American Colleges and Universities, “From the Editor: A Liberal and
Liberating Education for All.
48. Association of American Colleges and Universities, “Resources for Making Excellence
Inclusive.”
49. Roelofs, Foundations and Public Policy: The Mask of Pluralism.
50. Allen, Black Awakening in Capitalist America, an Analytic History.
WIN T ER 2 0 1 5
T H O U G H T & A CT IO N
35
S P ECIA L FO CUS : E QUI T Y, DI VE RS I T Y, A ND S OCI A L J U STI C E
51. Ibid.
52. Ibid, p. 73.
53. Roelfs, op cit, p. 25.
54. Zion and Blanchett, “[Re]conceptualizing Inclusion: Can Critical Race Theory and Interest
Convergence be Utilized to Achieve Inclusion and Equity for African American Students?”
pp. 2186-205.
55. Milem, et al., op cit.
56. Bell, op cit, p. 138.
57. See Ladson-Billings and Tate, op cit; and Pasque, op cit.
58. Iverson, op cit, p. 152.
59. Brennan and Naidoo, op cit, p. 291.
60. Crenshaw, op cit, p. 1351.
61. Iverson, op cit, p. 149.
WORKS CITED
Adams, Maurianne, Lee Anne Bell, and Pat Griffin, eds. 1997. Teaching for Diversity and Social
Justice: A Sourcebook. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Allen, Robert L. 1990. Black Awakening in Capitalist America, an Analytic History. Trenton, N.J.:
Africa World Press.
Association of American Colleges and Universities. 2011. “From the Editor: A Liberal and
Liberating Education for All.” Making Excellence Inclusive (Fall). Retrieved from http://www.
aacu.org/compass/documents/ MEINewsletter_Fall11.pdf
Association of American Colleges and Universities. 2012. “Resources for Making Excellence
Inclusive.” Retrieved from http://www.aacu. org/compass/publications.cfm
Bell, Derrick A. 1980. “Brown v. Board of Education and the Interest-convergence Dilemma.”
Harvard Law Review 93.
Bell, Derrick A. 1987. And We Are Not Saved: The Elusive Quest for Racial Justice. New York:
Basic Books.
Bell, Derrick A. 2004. Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for
Racial Reform. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bell, Joyce M. and Douglas Hartmann. 2007. “Diversity in Everyday Discourse: The Cultural
Ambiguities and Consequences of ‘Happy Talk.’” American Sociological Review 72, no. 6.
Berrey, Ellen C. 2011. “Why Diversity Became Orthodox in Higher Education, and How it
Changed the Meaning of Race on Campus.” Critical Sociology 37, no. 5.
Brennan, John and Rajani Naidoo. 2008. “Higher Education and the Achievement (and/or
prevention) of Equity and Social Justice.” Higher Education 56, no. 3.
Castagno, Angelina E. and Stacy J. Lee. 2007. “Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher
Education: Using Tribal Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an
Analytic Tool.” Equity and Excellence in Education 40.
Chang, Mitchell J. 2005. “Reconsidering the Diversity Rationale.” Change 91 no. 1.
Crenshaw, Kimberlé Williams. 2011. “Twenty Years of Critical Race Theory: Looking Back to
Move Forward.” Connecticut Law Review, 43, no. 5.
Crenshaw, Kimberlé Williams. 1988. “Race, Reform, and Retrenchment: Transformation and
Legitimation in Antidiscrimination Law.” German Law Journal, 12, no. 1.
Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic. 2001. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York:
University Press.
WH O B EN EF IT S ?: A CRIT ICA L RA CE A N A LY S IS O F T H E ( D ) EV O LV IN G
LA N G U A G E O F IN CLU S IO N IN H IG H ER ED U CA T IO N
Fraser, Nancy. 1996. “Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics: Redistribution, Recognition,
and Participation.” Retrieved from: http://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_documents/a-to-z/f/
Fraser98.pdf
Gorski, Paul C. 2006. “Complicity with Conservatism: The De-politicizing of Multicultural
Education.” Intercultural Education 17, no. 2.
Gorski, Paul C. 2012. “Complicating White Privilege: Poverty, Class, and the Nature of the
Knapsack.” Teachers College Record. Retrieved from: http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?
contentid=16687
Grillo, Tina. 2013. “Anti-Essentialism and Intersectionality: Tools to Dismantle the Master’s
House.” Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice. 10, no. 1.
Grutter v Bollinger, 539 U.S. 36, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/
html/02-241.ZS.html
Guerrero, Jaimes M. A. 1997. “Affirmative Action: Race, Class, Gender, and Now.” The American
Behavioral Scientist 41, no. 2.
Gurin, Patricia, Eric L. Dey, Sylvia Hurtado, and Gerald Gurin. 2002. “Diversity and Higher
Education: Theory and Impact on Educational Outcomes.” Harvard Educational Review, 72,
no. 3.
Harper, Shaun R. 2012. “Race without Racism: How Higher Education Researchers Minimize
Racist Institutionalized Norms.” The Review of Higher Education 36, no. 1.
Herring, Cedric and Loren Henderson. 2012. “From Affirmative Action to Diversity: Toward a
Critical DiversityPperspective.” Critical Sociology 38, no. 5.
hooks, bell. 1994. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York:
Routledge.
Iverson, Susan V. 2012. “Constructing Outsiders: The Discursive Framing of Access in
University Diversity Policies.” The Review of Higher Education 35, no. 2.
Ladson-Billings, Gloria and William G. Tate. 1995. “Toward a Critical Race Theory of
Education.” Teachers College Record 97, no. 1.
Milem, Jeffrey, Mitchell J. Chang, and Anthony Lising Antonio. 2005. Making Diversity Work on
Campus: A Research-based Perspective. American Association of Colleges & Universities.
The New York Times. 1993. “The Lani Guinier Mess.” Editorial ( June 5).
North, Connie E. 2006. “More than Words? Delving into the Substantive Meaning(s) of ‘Social
Justice’ in Education.” Review of Educational Research 76.
Owen, David S. 2009. “Privileged Social Identities and Diversity Leadership in Higher
Education.” The Review of Higher Education 32, no. 2.
Park, Stephanie. 2012. Microaggressive Scripps: An open letter to the Scripps community.
Scripps Associated Students. Retrieved from http://sas.scrippscollege.edu/2012/11/19/scrippsmicroagressions/
Pasque, Penny A. 2010. American Higher Education, Leadership, and Policy: Critical Issues and the
Public Good. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Patton, Lori D. and Michael D. Hannon. 2008. “Collaboration for Cultural Programming:
Engaging Culture Centers, Multicultural Affairs, and Student Activities Offices as Partners.”
In Creating Inclusive Environments for Cross Cultural Learning and Engagement Shaun R.
Harper, ed. Washington, D.C.: NASPA.
Patton, Lori D., Riyad A. Shahjahan and Nana Osei-Kofi. 2010. “Introduction to the Emergent
Approaches to Diversity and Social Justice in Higher Education Special Issue.” Equity &
Excellence in Higher Education 43, no. 3.
Perlmutter, Tova. 2011. “Power and Privilege: Why Justice Demands more than Diversity.”
National Lawyers Guild Review 67, no. 4.
Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
Fisher v. University of Texas, 570 U.S. 11-345 (2013).
36
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L
F A LL 2 0 1 3
T H O U G H T & A CT IO N
37
S P ECIA L FO CUS : E QUI T Y, DI VE RS I T Y, A ND S OCI A L J U STI C E
Reason, Robert D and Tracy L. Davis. 2005. “Antecedents, Precursors, and Concurrent Concepts
in the Development of Social Justice Attitudes and Actions.” In Developing Social Justice
Allies Robert D. Reason, Ellen M. Broido, Tracy L. Davis, and Nancy J. Evans, eds. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Regents of University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978). Retrieved from http://caselaw.
lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=438&invol=265
Roelofs, Joan. 2003. Foundations and Public Policy: The Mask of Pluralism. Albany, NY: State
University of New York Press.
Smith, Daryl G. 2009. Diversity’s Promise for Higher Education: Making it Work. Baltimore: The
John Hopkins Press.
Taylor, Edward. 1999. “Critical Race Theory and Interest Convergence in the Backlash Against
Affirmative Action: Washington State and the Initiative 200.” Teachers College Record, 102,
no. 3.
Wade, Lisa. 2009. “Doctoring Diversity: Race and Photoshop.” Sociological Images. Retrieved
from http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2009/09/02/doctoring-diversity-race-andphotoshop/
Williams, Damon A., Joseph B. Berger, and Shedrick A. McClendon. 2005. Toward a Model of
Inclusive Excellence and Change in Postsecondary Institutions. Washington, D.C.: Association of
American Colleges and Universities.
Wilson, Jeffrey L., Katrina A. Meyer, and Larry McNeal. 2012. “Mission and Diversity
Statements: What they do and do not say.” Innovative Higher Education 37, no. 2.
Wise, Tim J. 2005. Affirmative Action: Racial Preference in Black and White. New York, NY:
Routledge.
Zion, Shelley D. and Wanda Blanchett. 2011. “[Re]conceptualizing Inclusion: Can Critical Race
Theory and Interest Convergence be Utilized to Achieve Inclusion and Equity for African
American Students?” Teachers College Record 113, no. 10.
38
TH E N EA HIGHER ED UC A T I ON JOURNA L

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

We offer the bestcustom writing paper services. We have done this question before, we can also do it for you.

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.