Introduction and conclusion


Please see attached. I need a introduction and a conclusion to this group paper that I am working on. It is regarding Leadership Concept
Analysis: Resistance to Change in nursing. Please use the information in the paper please and thank you.

Leadership Concept Analysis: Resistance to Change
Courtney Pribonic, Elizabeth Rand, Laura Schmidt, Bessie Smith
Walden University
NURS 6053 Section 08, Interprofessional Organizational and Systems Leadership
April 14, 2019
Significance of Topic
Changing Minds define resistance to change as the action taken by individuals and
groups when they perceive the change that is occurring is a threat to them (Changing Minds,
2002-2019). In today’s world, change is inevitable; several influences that drive change within
healthcare include rising healthcare cost, declining reimbursement, workforce shortages, new
technology, and quality improvement. The degree of resistance to change is dependent upon two
factors: whether the change is mandated and if the change is proactive (Marquis & Huston,
2017). Change can occur as a result of an accident, due to drift or change can be planned. Most
organizational change occurs as a result of a planned change. Marquis and Huston define
planned change as a deliberate application of knowledge and skills by a leader to bring about
change (Marquis & Huston, 2017). Regardless of how change occurs, leaders must be flexible
and able to adapt to the fast-changing environment that healthcare is facing. Some individuals
will respond to change with excitement, while others will develop frustration. Therefore, leaders
must anticipate resistance to change when developing their overall plan which will allow the
leader to manage any objections effectively. It is essential for leaders to understand why people
are resistant to change and to embrace the idea that resistance will occur. Resistance to change is
often based on emotions versus the proposal to change. Individuals typically fear change because
change generates a sense of uncertainty, skepticism, and change takes individuals away from
their comfort zone (Shimoni, 2017). Leaders as change agents must understand the make-up of
their team, meaning leaders must know the culture and values of their team, educational levels,
and experience with change. Building a culture of trust, transparency, open communication, and
empowerment lessens the likelihood that change will result in resistance. Stakeholder
involvement and buy-in that the change is needed also help to minimize the risk of resistance.
Less resistance is typically met when changed can be introduced slowly. Leaders must provide
clear communication, answer questions, address the fear, and review the change proposal from
the stakeholder’s perspective to minimize resistance to change. To address fear further, leaders
should articulate how the change will help them do their job or provide better care to their
patients. Leaders should engage their informal change agents and empower them to serve as
champions for the change. Leaders must serve as role models during the change process and
provide feedback and positive reinforcement using data or other resources to celebrate the
success and sustain the change (Marquis & Huston, 2017). Change is difficult for all involved;
therefore, how change is managed is critical to implementing and sustaining the proposed
Review of Literature, Best Practices, and Impact on Leadership
Change is ever occurring and necessary for the success and improved outcomes of any
healthcare organization. But how do we achieve this change if resistance is met? Some change is
mandated, and some are proactive; usually, it is the mandated change that creates the resistance.
It is crucial for leaders to be mindful of each person’s values, education, cultural and social
backgrounds when implementing change. In the past managers used an autocratic style to
approach change; doing this can lead to wasted energy and frustration and an overwhelming
resistance from staff. The best approach to meeting resistance is to recognize it. Leaders must put
efforts into understanding that resistance is going to happen and looking at ways to identify
strategies to meet resistance. One example is to have all who are resisting verbalize what they
see as barriers. Allowing the individuals to verbalize their thoughts, meets that emotional need to
vent and allows the individual to feel heard (Marquis & Huston, 2017).
The leader must also share the “end game” vision. Sharing will enable the employee to
have a shared vision with the leader. When the leader articulates the vision for the change, it
allows others the ability to give input on that vision, resulting in increased communication
(Gesme & Wiseman, 2010). It may mean that the vision is altered slightly; however, all feel they
have had a voice. Doing so will decrease resistance in the future when the change is
implemented. It is vital for the manager to create a trusting environment, so the employee feels
they can support and trust that the vision will happen successfully.
It is also necessary to identify those who are onboard from the beginning and use them as
spokespersons to truly ignite a positivity around the proposed change (Marquis & Huston, 2017).
It is essential that one acknowledges those who are onboard with change. Managers must remain
at the center of the process to maintain engagement of those that are onboard. It is imperative
that organizations guide the behavior of experienced managers and increase their overall
knowledge of key resistive factors and how to address appropriately. As nurses make up much of
the organization’s staff, it is important for managers to meet with their nurses. Meeting each
person who is affected by the change is key, looking at their emotions and attitudes and truly
consulting with them on how the change will affect them will negate any unnecessary pushback
in the future. A final strategy for defeating resistance is by conducting the change under the best
conditions possible (Moradpour et al., 2017). The organization must be in an ideal place for
change to happen. For example, if change was initiated when staffing was low, nurses may feel
as if they were not properly prepared and the change would not be successful. Overall, it is key
that a positive emotionally based approach be taken when resistance to change is received.
Implications or Consequences for Nursing Leaders
As a nursing leader, one must realize that “resistance to change or to feedback is often a
normal reaction to anxiety, stress, evaluation, trauma, or even the learning process” (Backlund &
Johnson, 2018, p. 47). Resistance to change should be expected and dealt with effectively by the
nursing leader if their staff is to accept the change (Curtis & White, 2002). There are several
strategies a nursing leader can use to reduce resistance to a planned change. These include
introducing the change slowly; allowing all affected staff to participate in the planning and
implementation of the change; and encouraging staff to initiate changes within their
environment. All these strategies help to develop a trusting relationship between the leader and
their staff. As this relationship deepens, resistance to planned changes will decrease.
A successful leader is one who “engages employees in dialogue, actively shares and
seeks feedback, practices participative decision making, and is perceived as open and involved”
(Johansson, Miller, & Hamrin, 2014, p. 147). Communication within the healthcare setting is
vital to building relationships based on mutual trust and respect, which leads to improved patient
care and outcomes. Nursing leaders should not fear resistance to change; instead, they should
understand that it can foster an environment of growth and change if handled properly.
Backlund, M., & Johnson, V. (2018, August). The beauty of client and supervisee resistance.
Counseling Today, 61(2), 46-51. Retrieved from Retrieved from
Changing Minds. (2002-2019). Resistance to change. Retrieved from
Gesme, D., & Wiseman, M. (2010). How to implement change in practice. Journal of Oncology
Practice, 6(5), 257-259. Retrieved from
Hader, R. (2013). The only constant is change. Nursing Management, 44(5), 6. Retrieved from
the Walden Library databases.
Johansson, C., Miller, V. D., & Hamrin, S. (2014). Conceptualizing communicative leadership.
Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 19(2), 147-165.
Marquis, B. L., & Huston, C. J. (2017). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing:
Theory and application (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Moradpour, S., Abedi, H., & Bahonar, A. (2017). Investigating the relationship between selfleadership and resistance to organizational changes in the nursing managers of hospitals
affiliated with isfahan university of medical sciences, 2015. Annals of Tropical
Medicine and Public Health, (5). Retrieved from
Shimoni, B. (2017). What is resistance to change? A habitus-oriented approach. Academy of
Management Perspectives, 31(4), 257–270. Retrieved from the Walden Library

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