Leading Healthcare Professionals

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Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
Additional Accrediting Agencies and Agencies Supporting Accrediting Efforts
Note: Most health leaders are familiar with the Joint Commission (formally ‘JCAHO’); the list
and summaries below are agencies and organizations that may not be as familiar.
MAGNET
ANCC’s Magnet Recognition Program® is the most prestigious distinction a health care
organization can receive for nursing excellence and quality patient outcomes. Organizations that
achieve Magnet recognition are part of an esteemed group that demonstrates superior nursing
practices and outcomes. The primary aim of the magnet program is to promote nursing
excellence and quality patient outcomes. During the nursing shortage in 1983, The Magnet
Program was implemented after The American Academy of Nursing (AAN) Task Force on
Nursing Practice in Hospitals conducted a study to identify work environments that attract and
retain well-qualified nurses who promote quality patient, resident and client care. Only one
quarter of the 163 institutions possessed qualities that that attracted and retained nurses. These
organizations were called “magnet “hospitals. 14 Characteristics that distinguish these
organizations from others are known to this day as” Forces of Magnetism”.
Forces of Magnetism
1. Quality of Nursing Leadership
2.
Organizational Structure
8. Consultation & Resources
9. Autonomy
3. Management Style
10. Community & Health Care Organization
4. Personnel Policies & Programs
11. Nurses as Teachers
5. Professional Models of Care
12. Image of Nursing
6. Quality of Care
13. Interdisciplinary Relationships
7. Quality Improvement
14. Professional Development
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
In 1994, The University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, became the first
ANCC Magnet-designated organization. In 1998 Magnet expanded to include long-term care
facilities. In 2002, the program name officially changed to Magnet Recognition Program®.
Source (July 23, 2012): http://www.nursecredentialing.org/ForcesofMagnetism.aspx and
Kramer, M., Maguire, P., & Brewer, B. (2011). Clinical nurses in Magnet hospitals confirm
productive, healthy unit work environments. Journal of Nursing Management, 19, 5-17.
AAAHC
The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC), founded in 1979,
is an American organization which accredits ambulatory health care organizations, including
ambulatory surgery centers, office-based surgery centers, endoscopy centers, and college student
health centers, as well as health plans, such as health maintenance organizations and preferred
provider organizations. The AAAHC has been surveying and accrediting ambulatory surgery
centers since our founding in 1979. Standards are developed with active industry input, including
from the following member organizations:
•
Ambulatory Surgery Foundation
•
American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery
•
American Academy of Dermatology
•
American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
•
American Association of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgeons
•
American College of Gastroenterology
•
American College of Mohs Surgery
•
American Congress of Obstetricians & Gynecologists
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
•
American Gastroenterological Association
•
American Society of Anesthesiologists
•
American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association
•
American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
•
Association of periOperative Registered Nurses
•
Soceity for Ambulatory Anesthesia
The AAAHC has received ‘Medicare deemed status’ from the Centers for Medicare and
Medicaid Services. Accreditation surveys can be combined with, or independent of, Medicare
surveys.
Source (July 23, 2012): http://www.aaahc.org/en/accreditation/ASCs/
LEAPFROG
In 1998 a group of large employers came together to discuss how they could work
together to use the way they purchased health care to have an influence on its quality and
affordability. They recognized that there was a dysfunction in the health care market place.
Employers were spending billions of dollars on health care for their employees with no way of
assessing its quality or comparing health care providers. A 1999 report by the Institute of
Medicine gave the Leapfrog founders an initial focus – reducing preventable medical mistakes.
The report found that up to 98,000 Americans die every year from preventable medical errors
made in hospitals alone. In fact, there are more deaths in hospitals each year from preventable
medical mistakes than there are from vehicle accidents, breast cancer, and AIDS. The report
actually recommended that large employers provide more market reinforcement for the quality
and safety of health care. The founders realized that they could take ‘leaps’ forward with their
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
employees, retirees and families by rewarding hospitals that implement significant improvements
in quality and safety. Funding to set up Leapfrog came from the Business Roundtable (BRT) and
The Leapfrog Group was officially launched in November 2000. Leapfrog is now supported by
its members and others.”
The goal of Leapfrog as an organization is to highlight hospitals and medical centers that
provide safe quality of care. In a market where patients can choose where they receive medical
care, this would be one way patients could narrow down their options.
Source (July 24, 2012): http://www.leapfroggroup.org/about_leapfrog
HFAP
Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program (HFAP) is based out of Chicago, IL, HFAP was
established in 1945 as a way to provide objective reviews of the services provided by osteopathic
hospitals. Since that time HFAP has grown to become a nationally recognized accreditor for all
hospitals.
According to its’ press release, HFAP is one of only for national voluntary accreditation
organizations authorized by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (HFAP, 2012).
HFAP focuses on acute care hospitals, critical access hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers
for compliance with Medicare Conditions of Participation and Conditions for Coverage.
The HFAP accredits and crosswalks to CMS standards (as applicable) for the following
programs:
· Hospitals and their clinical laboratories; · Ambulatory care/surgical facilities
· Mental health facilities; · Substance abuse facilities
· Physical rehabilitation facilities; · Clinical laboratories; and · Critical access hospitals
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
The HFAP provides certification in the following disease management programs/Centers of
Excellence:
· Primary Stroke Center Certification
HFAP is given its authority through the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).
However, HFAP also is recognized by:
· National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)
· Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)
· State Departments of Public Health; · Managed care organizations; and
· Insurance companies
Source (July 25, 2012): http://www.hfap.org/
and
http://www.hfap.org/about/overview.aspx
CHAP
Community Health Accreditation Program (CHAP) is an independent, not-for-profit, accrediting
body for community-based health care organizations. CHAP’s purpose is to define and advance
the highest standards of community-based care to:
•
Validate the excellence of community health care practice through consistent
measurement of the delivery of quality service
•
Motivate providers to achieve continuous improvement by maintaining standards of
excellence
•
Assist the public with selection of community health services and providers
•
Lead by example through organizational excellence and quality performance
History: CHAP was the first accrediting body for community-based health care organizations in
the US created in 1965 as a joint venture between the American Public Health Association
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Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
(APHA) and the National League for Nursing (NLN). In 1988, CHAP became a separately
incorporated, non-profit subsidiary of the NLN under the CHAP name. In 2001 it became an
independent, non-profit corporation. CHAP was granted “deeming authority” by the Centers for
Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in 1992 for home health and in 1999, for hospice. In
2006, CMS granted CHAP full deeming authority for Home Medical Equipment (HME).
Community Accreditation Program (CHAP) Timeline:
1992 – CHAP was granted “deeming authority” by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
Services (CMS)
1999 – Home health and for hospice
2006 – CMS granted CHAP full deeming authority for Home Medical Equipment (HME). CHAP
accredits the following programs and services:
•
Home Health (deemed and non-deemed)
•
Hospice (deemed and non-deemed)
•
Home Medical Equipment
•
Pharmacy
•
Private Duty
•
Infusion Therapy Nursing
•
Public Health
•
Community Nursing Centers
•
Supplemental Staffing Services
Source (July 25, 2012): http://www.chapinc.org/
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
CODA
The American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) was
established in 1975, is nationally recognized by the United States Department of Education
(USDE) to accredit dental and dental-related education programs conducted at the postsecondary level. CODA’s mission is to serve the public by establishing, maintaining and
applying standards that ensure the quality and continuous improvement of dental and dentalrelated education and reflect the evolving practice of dentistry.
From 1938-1974, prior to the formation of the Commission, the American Dental Association’s
Council on Dental Education was recognized as the accrediting agency for dental and dentalrelated education programs. In 1972, the Council recognized the need to provide the
communities of interest with more direct representation in accreditation decisions and policy
issues. After considerable planning, the Commission on Dental Accreditation was formed.
CODA is overseen by the American Dental Association. The Commission uses an extensive list
of consultants (or “peers”) in its accreditation activities. Each year, all participating communities
of interest nominate individuals to serve as consultants. Consultants serve as members of site
visit teams. They may also serve as members of special committees and may assist the
Commission in other activities. Actual appointments of consultants – selected from those persons
nominated – are made annually by the Commission based on qualifications and current needs for
program type and geographic representation.
The Commission functions independently and autonomously in matters of developing and
approving accreditation standards, making accreditation decisions on educational programs and
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
developing and approving procedures that are used in the accreditation process. It is structured to
include an appropriate representation of the communities of interest.
Activities for the Commission include:
•
formulating and approving accreditation standards by which programs are evaluated
•
establishing policies and procedures for conducting the accreditation program
•
determining and publicizing program accreditation status and
•
appointing consultants and site visitors to assist in accreditation activities
Source (July 28, 2012): American Dental Association (ADA), 2012. CODA Staff and
Membership Information. Retrieved from: http://www.ada.org/312.aspx#establishment
ACHC
The Accreditation Commission for Health Care (ACHC) was established in 1985, in Raleigh,
North Carolina. In 1996 they began offering accreditation services nationally. The accreditation
commission was derived by several home care providers who felt the need to establish an
accreditation commission to cater to small health care providers. The commission’s motto is “by
providers for providers.”
The ACHC offers accreditation programs tailored to the home care and alternate site healthcare
industry. ACHC accredits:
•
Home health
•
Infusion nursing
•
Hospice
•
Sleep labs
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
•
Home/Durable medical equipment
•
Pharmacy services and
•
Non-certified/private duty programs
The founders’ design was based upon the following:
•
Standards that would be patient-centered, relevant, realistic and written in easily
understood language
•
A self-assessment process that would help applicants identify and organize evidence of
compliance
•
Educational and consultative site-visits
•
customer services with a friendly, responsive approach
ACHC’s mission is to support healthcare organizations and providers in optimizing wellness
through standards that promote the effective, efficient delivery of quality services and products.
Source (July 29, 2012): http://www.achc.org/about_why_achc.php
ISO
The International Organization for Standardization, commonly referred to as ISO, is the world’s
largest developer of international standards for various products, services and overall good
practice. ISO’s primary focus is on efficiency and effectiveness in multiple industries and
making international trade much easier by implementing a defined set of standards. ISO was
founded in 1947 with a central secretariat based in Geneva, Switzerland. ISO has over 160
members, 3,300 technical bodies and developed more than 19,000 internationals standards.
Some of the industries that ISO provides standards for improved quality are in:
•
Food safety
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
•
Technology
•
Agriculture and
•
Healthcare
Another key aspect to focus on is who and how are these standards developed. The international
standards are developed by experts from all over the world in specific industries. They develop
standards that are needed and required for their sector. Therefore, the standards go through a
rigorous development and consensus process before they are implemented, which allows the
certification to incorporate a diverse experience and knowledge base.
A company may decide to seek certification for many reasons, as certification may:
•
be a contractual or regulatory requirement
•
be necessary to meet customer preferences
•
fall within the context of a risk management program, and
•
help motivate staff by setting a clear goal for the development of its management system.
Overall, with all of these structures in place, ISO has been able to assist organizations by:
•
making sure that products and services are safe
•
organizations are able to become more efficient by:
•
o
reducing waste
o
reducing errors
o
increasing productivity
o
reducing overall costs and
allowing greater access to international markets by clearing barriers to trade
Source (July 29, 2012): International Organization for Standardization. About ISO.
http://www.iso.org/iso/home/about.htm
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
APTA
The American Physical Therapy Association’s (APTA) goal is to improve the health and quality
of life of individuals in society by advancing physical therapist practice, education, and research,
and by increasing the awareness and understanding of physical therapy’s role in the nation’s
health care system. The APTA started in 1921 as the American Women’s Physical Therapeutic
Association. By the end of the 1930s, men were admitted and the name changed to the American
Physiotherapy Association. By the end of the 1940s, it was called the American Physical
Therapy Association and its first office was opened in New York City. Its headquarters is now
located in Alexandria, Virginia, and the organization represents more than 74,000 members
throughout the U.S.
Source (July 30, 2012): http://www.apta.org/AboutUs/WhoWeAre/
and
http://www.apta.org/History/
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Instructor’s Name Here
NAME:______________________________________
Please put your name on each page for full consideration
Thought Worksheet
Each Thought Worksheet is worth the number of points stated in the syllabus.
You should use a separate Thought Worksheet for each assigned topic/content area/change. Fill in,
answer, defend and provide citation sources below:
Assigned Topic/Content Area/Change:
Week of Course:
Describe the Issue based on the Topic/Content Area/Change in your own words (2-3 sentences) (1 point):
How does this topic/content area/change impact the following major stakeholder groups? Fill in the table
below (you can copy and paste the symbols if using a computer). (3 points)
Stakeholder
Group
Example
Providers:
Hospitals
Providers:
Physicians
Providers:
Nurses
Providers:
Allied Health
Professionals
Consumer:
Employers
Consumer:
Patient
Third Party
Payers (Insurers)
Government
Overall
Perspective
Positive,
Negative or
Neutral
Positive
Impact on
Cost from
Specific
Stakeholder
Perspective



Impact on
Quality from
Specific
Stakeholder
Perspective



Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Impact on
Access from
Specific
Stakeholder
Perspective

Values –
Beliefs –
Attitudes
Impact on
Stakeholder


Attitudes
Instructor’s Name Here
NAME:______________________________________
Please put your name on each page for full consideration
From the table above, explain what is the Healthcare Industry Perspective on this topic/content
area/change or issue? Look at the topic from a Cost, Quality and Access point of view and then
summarize the overall industry perspective in 4-5 sentences below. (3 points)
Cost:
Quality:
Access:
Overall Industry Perspective (integrate Cost, Quality and Access: May want to use the excel file, Cost
Quality Access Model Assistant):
List at least 3 sources of information for this topic that you read or reviewed to make your decisions in
the table. List them below using the examples provided. You should list your text books as appropriate.
Listing more quality sources is better, but limit to 6 sources please. (1 point)
Source: Book, Website,
Article (example
www.census.gov; or
Futurescan)
Citation
(example: Census
Bureau, Population
QuickFacts or
FutureScan, Chapter 3)
Reference
(example: Accessed and
Retrieved Census data
on March 1, 2005 or
page 16, Table 3 in
book)
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
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Remarks on Reference
Instructor’s Name Here
NAME:______________________________________
Please put your name on each page for full consideration
From your colleagues/other students in this course who, by name, shares a similar view with you on this
topic? This will require you to discuss these topics together. (1 point)
List the person’s name:
What is similar?:
Who, a fellow student in this course, has a different point of view on this topic? (1 point)
List the person’s name:
What is different?:
To turn in, either:
1) Hand in as hard copy (as long as I can read it, it is fine to hand write) or
2) Save this file as XXXXXXXXX your first initial and last name and year.doc
Example: XXXXXXX TW ASmith 2010.doc and send to your instructor as an email attachment.
Additional notes place here please:
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
Copyright © 2018 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company
Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition
Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephens
Assignment/Project: Chapter 5
Title: Conflict Management Style Assistant
Task: Complete a self-assessment of your conflict management style by using the Conflict
Management Style Assessment.
Basic: Follow the steps below.
Step 1. Open the file, Chapter 5 Conflict Management Style Assistant.xls
Step 2. Click on ‘What is My Dominant Conflict Domain and Style(s)?’
Step 3 Complete the Assessment by following the instructions in the file; follow the directions
to answer the best selection that first comes to mind (do not think too hard about the answer but
select the first one you think best or accurate; there are no wrong answers).
Step 4. Once all questions from Step 3 are answered, Click on Calculate my scores and see the
summary results below the questionnaire section and review your findings.
Step 5. Based on your dominant style in mind, review the other sections of the file (from the
first navigation page):
a. What Conflict Style Should I Use in a Specific Situation?
b. Conflict Management Style Decision Tree
c. Conflict Management Style Graph
d. Conflict Styles Criteria
Step 6. Write a short half page narrative describing your findings.
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Bloom’s Taxonomy
Cognitive Domain (1)
The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This
includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in
the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, which are
listed in order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories
can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first one must be mastered before the
next one can take place.
Category
Knowledge: Recall data or information.
Example and Key Words
Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from
memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.
Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows,
labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls,
recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.
Comprehension: Understand the
Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing.
meaning, translation, interpolation, and
Explain in one’s own words the steps for performing
interpretation of instructions and
a complex task. Translates an equation into a
problems. State a problem in one’s own
computer spreadsheet.
words.
Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends,
distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends,
generalizes, gives Examples, infers, interprets,
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paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes,
translates.
Application: Use a concept in a new
Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee’s
situation or unprompted use of an
vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate
abstraction. Applies what was learned in
the reliability of a written test.
the classroom into novel situations in the
Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs,
work place.
demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies,
operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates,
shows, solves, uses.
Analysis: Separates material or concepts
Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by
into component parts so that its
using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies
organizational structure may be
in reasoning. Gathers information from a
understood. Distinguishes between facts
department and selects the required tasks for
and inferences.
training.
Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares,
contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates,
discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates,
infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.
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Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern
Examples: Write a company operations or process
from diverse elements. Put parts together
manual. Design a machine to perform a specific
to form a whole, with emphasis on
task. Integrates training from several sources to
creating a new meaning or structure.
solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the
outcome.
Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles,
composes, creates, devises, designs, explains,
generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges,
reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites,
summarizes, tells, writes.
Evaluation: Make judgments about the
Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire
value of ideas or materials.
the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a
new budget.
Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes,
contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes,
discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets,
justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.
Affective Domain (2)
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This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings,
values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories are listed
from the simplest behavior to the most complex:
Category
Example and Key Words
Receiving Phenomena:
Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and
Awareness, willingness to hear,
remember the name of newly introduced people.
selected attention.
Key Words: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives,
holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits,
erects, replies, uses.
Responding to Phenomena:
Examples: Participates in class discussions. Gives a
Active participation on the part of
presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts, models, etc.
the learners. Attends and reacts to
in order to fully understand them. Know the safety rules
a particular
and practices them.
phenomenon. Learning outcomes
Key Words: answers, assists, aids, complies, conforms,
may emphasize compliance in
discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices,
responding, willingness to
presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.
respond, or satisfaction in
responding (motivation).
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Valuing: The worth or value a
Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic
person attaches to a particular
process. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural
object, phenomenon, or
differences (value diversity). Shows the ability to solve
behavior. This ranges from
problems. Proposes a plan to social improvement and
simple acceptance to the more
follows through with commitment. Informs management on
complex state of
matters that one feels strongly about.
commitment. Valuing is based on
Key Words: completes, demonstrates, differentiates,
the internalization of a set of
explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies,
specified values, while clues to
proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.
these values are expressed in the
learner’s overt behavior and are
often identifiable.
Organization: Organizes values
Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between
into priorities by contrasting
freedom and responsible behavior. Accepts responsibility
different values, resolving
for oneís behavior. Explains the role of systematic planning
conflicts between them, and
in solving problems. Accepts professional ethical
creating an unique value
standards. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities,
system. The emphasis is on
interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet
comparing, relating, and
the needs of the organization, family, and self.
synthesizing values.
Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares,
completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes,
identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares,
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relates, synthesizes.
Internalizing values
Examples: Shows self-reliance when working
(characterization): Has a value
independently. Cooperates in group activities (displays
system that controls their
teamwork). Uses an objective approach in problem
behavior. The behavior is
solving. Displays a professional commitment to
pervasive, consistent, predictable,
ethical practice on a daily basis. Revises judgments and
and most importantly,
changes behavior in light of new evidence. Values people
characteristic of the
for what they are, not how they look.
learner. Instructional objectives
Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays, influences,
are concerned with the student’s
listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies,
general patterns of adjustment
questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies.
(personal, social, emotional).
1. Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive
Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.
2.Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives,
the Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David
McKay Co., Inc.
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Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications, Third Edition Gerald R. Ledlow and James H. Stephen
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: STYLE RECOMMENDATION ASSISTANT
Navigation: Click on Topics Below
What Conflict Style Should I Use in a Specific Situation?
What is My Dominant Conflict Domain and Style(s)?
Conflict Management Style Decision Tree
Conflict Management Style Graph
Conflict Styles Criteria
Dr. Ledlow
gerald.ledlow@UTHCT.com
What Conflict Style Should I Use in a Specific Situation?
YOUR ANSWERS: TYPE a CAPITAL ‘X’ in 1 Box for e
Go To Start
Example
Are you using the conflict style recommendation assistant?
1. Is or are the issue or issues important to you?
2. Is or are the issue or issues important to the other party?
3. Is the relationship with the other party important to you?
4. How much time is available and how much pressure/stress is there to
come to resolution? Of note, an answer of ‘High’ means High Pressure & Stress.
5. How much do you trust the other party?
ALL QUESTIONS MUST BE ANSWERED
Please see your results first but, to Re-Use the Conflict Style Assistant,
delete each ‘X’ in each cell for each of the 5 questions above.
THE RECOMMENDED CONFLICT STYLE(S) TO CONSIDER
BASED ON YOUR ANSWERS:
1
2
NOTE: It is important to review the conflict style criteria before you definitively select a style to us
Go To Start
CONFLICT STYLE RECOMMENDATION DECISION TREE
Go To Start
Importance
of issues
to You
Importance
of issues to
Other Party
Importance
of relationship
to You
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
Time and
Pressure
High
Low
Competing
High
Low
Degrees of
Trust in Other
Problem Solving
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
Competing
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
Accommodating
Accommodating
High
Low
High
Low
Reference
Folger, J.P, Poole, M.S., & Stutman, R.K. (1997) Working through conflict: Strategies for relationships, gro
3d Ed. NY: Longman, page 201. Modified by Ledlow, G.R.
Go To Start
CONFLICT STYLE SELECTION: ASSERTIVENESS AND COO
Go To Start
Go To Start
CONFLICT STYLE SELECTION CRITERIA
Go To Start
Accommodating
1
2
3
4
5
6
When you find you are wrong; to allow a better position to be heard, to learn, and to show your reasona
When issues are more important to others than to you; to satisfy others and maintain cooperation.
To build social capital for later issues.
To minimize loss when you are outmatched and losing the conflict.
When harmony and stability are especially important.
To allow subordinates to develop by learning from their mistakes.
Avoiding
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
When an issue is trivial or more important issues are pressing.
When you perceive no chance of satisfying your needs.
When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution.
To let people cool down and regain perspective.
When gathering information supersedes immediate decision.
When others can resolve the conflict more effectively.
When issues seem a result of other issues.
Collaborating
1
2
3
4
5
To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised.
When your objective is to learn.
To merge insights from people with different perspectives.
To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus.
To work through feelings that has harmed an interpersonal relationship.
Competing
1
2
3
4
When quick, decisive action is vital (e.g., emergency situations such as a disaster or terrorism incident o
On important issues where unpopular actions need implementing (e.g., cost cutting, enforcing unpopula
On issues vital to company welfare and survival when you know you’re right.
Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior.
Compromising
1
2
3
4
5
When goals are important, but not worth the effort or potential disruption of competing.
When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals.
To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues.
To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure.
As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful.
Problem Solving
1
2
3
Go To Start
May not always work (takes two to make this style work)
Requires the identification of a broader range of strategies
Points for problem-solving
a
Both parties must have a vested interest in the outcome (the resolution)
b
Both parties feel a better solution can be achieved through problem-based collaboration
c
Both parties recognize the problem is caused by the relationship, not the people involved
d
Focus is on solving the problem, not on accommodating differing views
e
Both parties are flexible
f
Understanding that all solutions have positive and negative aspects
g
Both parties understand each other’s issues
h
Problem is looked at objectively, not personally
i
Both parties are knowledgeable about conflict management
j
Allow everyone to “save face”
k
Celebrate successful outcomes openly.
CAPITAL ‘X’ in 1 Box for each of the 5 questions below
X
HIGH/MUCH/YES
e & Stress.
LOW/LITTLE/NO
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Go To Start
Click Below
Learn More About Conflict Styles
Review Conflict Style Criteria
nitively select a style to use.
Go To Start
Go To Start
ees of
in Other
Problem Solving
Style/Strategy
Problem-Solving
Compromise
Compromise
Competing
Collaborating
Competing
Collaborating
Accommodating
Accommodating
Collaborating
Accommodating
Avoiding
Avoiding
Avoiding
Accommodating
Avoiding
ct: Strategies for relationships, groups, and organizations.
Go To Start
TIVENESS AND COOPERATION
Go To Start
CONFLICT STYLE PREFERENCE ASSESSMENT
As personality style, everyone has a dominant conflict management style. This assessment determines yo
dominant conflict management style.
Adapted from Cupach and Canary; and Linda Putnam, Purdue University, refer t
Consider the last two or three conflict situations with your supervisor at your organization; reflect on thos
Type a CAPITAL ‘X’ under the most appropriate cell below for each question. Place only one X in each cell
Example: Conflict is inevitable ______.
X
Always
Very
Often
Often
Sometimes
Very
Often
Often
Sometimes
1. I blend my ideas and thoughts with
others to create new alternatives and
compromises for resolving conflict.
0
2. I shy away from topics that cause
disputes and disagreements.
0
3. I make my opinion known in
disagreements with my supervisor.
0
4. I suggest solutions that combine
several viewpoints.
0
5. I steer clear of situations that cause
arguments.
0
Always
6. I give in a little on my ideas when my
supervisor also gives in.
0
7. I avoid my supervisor when I suspect
a disagreement will be discussed.
0
8. I consider both sides (mine and my
supervisor’s viewpoint) by integrating
arguments into a new solution in a
dispute with my supervisor.
0
9. I will go 50 – 50 to reach a fair
settlement with my supervisor.
0
10. I raise my voice when trying to get
my supervisor to accept my position.
0
Always
Very
Often
Often
Sometimes
Very
Often
Often
Sometimes
11. I offer creative solutions during
disagreements.
0
12. I keep quiet about my views in order
to avoid disagreements.
0
13. I give in if my supervisor will meet
me half-way on a disagreement.
0
14. I downplay the importance of the
issues in a disagreement.
0
15. I reduce disagreements by making
them seem insignificant.
0
Always
16. I meet my supervisor in the middle
in our differences.
0
17. I am forceful when stating my
opinions.
0
18. I dominate arguments until my
supervisor understands my views.
0
19. I suggest we work together to create
solutions to disagreements.
0
20. I try to use my supervisor’s ideas to
develop solutions to problems.
0
Always
Very
Often
Often
Sometimes
Very
Often
Often
Sometimes
0
0
0
21. I offer trade-offs to reach solutions
in a disagreement.
0
22. I argue persistently for my stance in
an argument.
0
23. I withdraw or avoid my supervisor
when confronted about a controversial
issue.
0
24. I side-step disagreements when they
arise.
0
25. I try to smooth over differences by
making them appear unimportant.
0
Always
26. I insist my position be accepted in a
dispute with my supervisor.
0
27. I make our (mine and my supervisor)
differences seems less serious.
0
28. I do not say what is on my mind
rather than argue with my supervisor.
0
29. I ease conflict by claiming our
differences are not serious.
0
30. I stand firm in expressing my
viewpoints during a disagreement with
my supervisor.
PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
0
0
CALCULATE the RESULTS of MY ANSWERS
Click Here
TO REUSE THE ASSESSMENT:
Please see your results first but, to Re-Use the Assessment,
delete each ‘X’ in each cell for each of the 30 questions above.
YOUR DOMINANT CONFLICT DOMAIN & STYLE(S) IS:
1
Domain:
Control Strategies
Style(s):
Competing
Click
0
2
Non-Confrontation
Go To Start of Assistant
Click
Go To Start of Assessment
Strong Non-Confrontation
Avoidance & Accommodatin
Learn more about Conflict Management Styles

Click
YOU USE:
0
Solutions Oriented
0
Control Strategies
Note: To Re-Use the Assessment, delete each ‘X’ in each cell
for each of the 30 questions above.
Strong Solutions Oriented
Collaboration, Compromise, &
Strong Control Strategies
Competing
This assessment determines your
nda Putnam, Purdue University, refer to Management Communication Quarterly Vol. 1 No. 3 (1988)
ur organization; reflect on those conflict situations for a few moments.
n. Place only one X in each cell for each question.
Seldom
Very
Seldom
Never
0
0
0
0
0
Seldom
Very
Seldom
Never
0
0
0
0
0
Seldom
Very
Seldom
Never
0
0
0
0
0
Seldom
Very
Seldom
Never
0
0
0
0
0
Seldom
Very
Seldom
Never
0
0
0
0
0
Seldom
Very
Seldom
Never
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
Strong Non-Confrontation Strategies
Avoidance & Accommodating
Learn more about these styles
Strong Solutions Oriented Strategies
Collaboration, Compromise, & Problem Solving
Strong Control Strategies
Learn more about these styles
Learn more about these styles

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