make a presentation or a speech according to the research paper

Description

It is about 7-8 min talk according to the research paper I provided (main idea, argument, thesis, analysis…..)

either the ppt or the oral text

here is the instruction

Oral Presentation Guide
Your talk will be based on the research you did for your paper: but think of this as a
separate, freestanding presentation of that research. Most people will wish to use notes:
prepare these especially for this talk, instead of using your paper as a prompt. You may
use visual aids (e.g. Powerpoint) if you like, but this is not required.
Structure
1. Intro: “hook”(short opening story, question, etc.: optional); basic topic and problem;
research question and thesis
2. Body: set out argument; provide basic information on topic; give selective (preferably
interesting) examples of your “up-close” analysis
3. Conclusion: sum up argument; implications
Style
Oral text:
• accessible content
• guide the audience through the talk’s structure
• give examples and stories
Speech delivery:
• clear; with appropriate volume for the space; at a natural place (not too fast)
• speak from bullet point notes, not full written text (except for quotations or important
sections), and especially not from a full research paper
Body language:
• make eye contact with audience members
• try to be relaxed and calmly confident
Visual aids:
• be selective: don’t overwhelm with either text or images
Preparation
•
•
•
plan time breakdown
notes: bullet points; write full text of quotations or important sections
rehearse whole presentation at least once
1
ZHUANGZI TEXTS
2
Title
The lifestyle that Zhuang Zi wants to pursue (Zhuangzi “supreme happiness,” Zhuangzi
“mastering Life,” Zhuangzi “The Mountain Tree,” Zhuangzi “constrained will,” Zhuangzi
“Autumn Floods”)
Research Question: What kind of life does Zhuangzi pursue and what kind of person is he, or wants
to become?
Abstract
This paper will talk about five different sections from Zhuangzi which include; “supreme
happiness,” “mastering life,” “The Mountain Tree,” “constrained will” and “Autumn Floods.”
Zhuangzi is a famous philosopher who lived during the middle of the Warring States Period.
Zhuangzi’s wisdom had far exceeded that of most ordinary people. Zhuangzi avoided fame and
fortune throughout his entire life as opposed to other philosophers who wanted to crave personal
fame and gain. So, I attempt a structurally similar re-interpretation of Zhuangzi’s perspectives and
the kind of life Zhuangzi pursued and the kind of a person he wanted to be? The argument is that
Zhuang Zi wanted to abandon the pursuit of a visible trace, abandon emotions and joys and
sorrows, abandon conspiracy and fraud, make the spirit pure, become a quiet, lonely and nothing
less human being.
Outline
The introduction part will talk about my opinion on Zhuangzi’s attitude towards life and
his dreams. The body paragraphs will give specific pieces of evidence to support my opinion. The
five different chapters explain the narratives techniques. “Supreme happiness,” talks about
standards of “Ultimate Joy” and how to achieve it. “Mastering life” mainly talks about the way of
3
health, nourishing the spirit being the central idea of this chapter. “The Mountain Tree” has the
same theme as the “The Human World,” showing the philosophy of “virtual reality” of life through
nine stories. Fictitious to evade the ideal realm of reality, and combine the method of doing nothing
to extricate ourselves with the philosophical concept of development of ending without materiality,
then prove the Co-existence of human and nature. The main purpose of “constrained will” is to
explain the way of recuperation, involving moral cultivation, ideal personality and health
promotion. Proposed to abandon the pursuit of visible traces of abandonment of emotions and joys
and sorrows, to remove fraud and deception, so that the spirit is pure. The “Autumn Floods” that
Zhuangzi wants to show that we should maintain a modest present and arrogant attitude toward
learning. Only in this way we can achieve our dreams. In the second part of paragraphs, I will put
the secondary resources which are four specialists scholarly. In conclusion, I will provide a
summary of all the evidence that I provide and seek the perspective of Zhuangzi that he seeks for
his whole life.
Introduction
Zhuangzi, who is also known as Chuang- Tzu in Wade- Giles Romanization, was named
after the Master on Zhuang and was among the earliest people who wrote text to contribute to the
philosophy which was later on come to be known as Daojia, or simply the school of the way.
According to the traditional dating and come up with seven chapters of the text which have been
attributed as the contemporary of the Confucian thinker Mencius, though there are no direct
philosophical dialogue records between them1. The Zhuangzi texts are classified as the greatest
1
Ames, R. T. (Ed.). (2016). Wandering at Ease in the Zhuangzi. SUNY Press.
4
philosophical and literary masterpieces that China has ever produced. Zhuangzi used complex
styles in writing all these texts including narrative, polysemic, indirect, humorous, poetic and
mythical.
In most of the texts produced by Zhuangzi tends to espouse a holistic philosophy of the life
to live a simple and natural and more favoring life. They also encourage disengagement from the
socialization of the artificialities and to facilitate the natural skill and potencies. The texts are of
ordinary classifications and evaluation, noting down how many modes of understanding between
the philosophical school, cultures and creatures and lack of the independent means of carrying out
comparative evaluations2. Some of this text advocates for more committed mode of understanding
of the system that is fixed, but it is flexible and fluid and maintains a pragmatic attitude, provisional
towards the applicability of the evaluations and the categories.
Zhuangzi was born in time between 403-221 BCE a century plus after the death of
Confucius. Amid this time, the ostensibly ruling house of so-called Zhou had lost its authority.
During this time, there was a high struggle for power between the states on the imperial power3.
This led to the formation of the Baijia- hundred schools; favoring the establishment of more
schools of thought and each was articulating its conception to the return of the harmony back to
the state. Zhuangzi came up with several texts that are going to be discussed in this paper which
includes; the mountain tree, mastering life, supreme happiness and autumn floods.
2
Coutinho, S. (2017). Zhuangzi and early Chinese philosophy: Vagueness, transformation, and
paradox. Routledge
3
Fox, A. D. (2015). Zhuangzi: Text and Context. By Livia Kohn. Honolulu: Three Pines
Press, 2014. 335 pp. ISBN‐10: 1931483272; ISBN‐13: 978‐1931483278.
5
Mastering life
Zhuangzi came up with the Mastering Life text to developed the parables of the craft. In
the mastering life, the text dates back to the third or the fourth century of BCE and is a collection
of many philosophical and parables on the Daoist themes that are attributed to Zhuangzi as the
author. Much of the material is satirical or more fantastical by utilization of the wild imagery,
absurdity to the crack conventional and odd turns of phases as well as the way of thinking that is
complacent. The text mocks the confusion impulse to the reform the world, as well as the logician,
claims to the individuals that are pure4. The text argues that we should accept radical world by
stopping to complain and striving to excel, more so seek to establish our oneness by use of the
magical powers that makes the cosmos and runs the world.
Zhuangzi comes up with the mastering life text to find out transcendent principles in more
humble localities and in this story; he fits in the special skills of artisans and servants. This article
is more relevant to the creative practice, though some metaphors are developed of which can bring
different meanings to distinct aspects of life. Going through the text, I was able to come up with
four parables of the craft. This includes the following;
The text says that when the woodworker Ch’ing carved a piece of the wood and made up a
bell stand, and when he was through everybody marveled on it because it was signifying the work
of the gods of spirits. This fascinated craftsman thus the reason as to why he replied by saying that
is just a craftsman thus the reason why doesn’t have any art. He explains that he has to fast so as
4
Law, C. Y. (2017). Happiness, well-being, and the Zhuangzi. HKU Theses Online
(HKUTO).
6
to still his mind and after the third day, he can no more remember any congratulations or rewards.
After the fifth day of fasting, the thoughts skills and dumpiness of praise or blame fades from his
mind. After the seventh day of fasting, the craftsman says that his body becomes more still that he
even forgets that he has four limbs, body and the form. He continues that says that after this type
he can only match the heaven with heaven, thus the reason why people are still contemplating
whether the spirits made the results.
The second one is when Yen Yuan said to the Confucius that he once crossed the gulf at
the Goblet Deeps and the ferryman handled the boat with an extraordinary skill. Then he asked
Confucius whether one can learn how to handle a boat, and he said definitely yes for a good
swimmer5. Thus, one that can swim under the water can be able to handle the boat even if he has
never seen one. In the text, the Confucius said that a good swimmer had acquired his ability
through repeated practice to swim under the water; thus, he has forgotten the water. This parable
means that one should let the skills can be gained through repeated practice can courage that one
has.
The third one is found when the K’ai Chih says that he heard the master say the one who is
good in healthy life is like the herder of the sheep, who watches them for the stragglers and whips
them up when the need comes6. This means that a good leader must be able to nourish another
peoples’ life. Confucius gave out three rules that are the utmost for everyone to follow which he
5
Lee, J. K. (2018). What Is Happy Death? From the Perspective of Happiness Education. Online
Submission
6
Wang, Q. (2017). A comparative study of the subject in Jacques Lacan and Zhuangzi.
Asian Philosophy, 27(3), 248-262.
7
called the rules of the finest; which don’t just come out and shine, don’t go in and hide and one
should stand stock- still in the middle of the battle.
The fourth one states that Cook Ting was cutting an ox Wel- hui lord and when he was able
to make rhythm by a touch of his hand, heave of the shoulder, move of his feet, and thrust of his
knee and the rhythm was very perfect, as if he was performing the Mulberry Grove dance. He
continues and says that a good cook will change the knife once per year, but the mediocre one will
go months because is just a hack. He explains this by saying that knowing how to use the knife is
a paramount way of maintaining it.
The supreme happiness
The text starts by asking the question; what is the supreme happiness? Thus, the entire
context was written to answer that question. According to the text, the word supreme happiness in
the life is the conviction that one is loved. The teaching by Buddha reveals a procedure that should
be followed to achieve ever-lasting happiness. According to the text, the mind is said to be cloudy
sky which in real sense means that the pure and clear but overcast by the clouds of the delusions.
The delusions such as greed, ignorance, and hatred are not by any way the intrinsic part of the
brain. Therefore, in case we apply all the experiences of the supreme happiness of life it means
that we get the enlightenment. Thus, supreme happiness primarily means the notion of the good
fortune, good happening, and good chance. The Greeks notwithstanding it as a gift of the gods.
The supreme happiness then is given as a reward for the goodness of the life.
The text also seeks to answer the question whether there is a way one can keep himself
alive or not, what one can do, what one can rely on, what one can avoid, what one should follow,
where one can find happiness and how one can leave alone and lastly what should be hated? These
8
questions are the same that everyone keeps on asking each and every-day. The author, Zhuangzi
still knew what the world honored, reputation, wealth, good name and long life and not much that
has changed in this days. Majority of the society finds their happiness in, rich food, a life of the
beautiful sights, fines and ease. In most of the societies, the riches are considered to be a great
deal. For real does the money buy happiness? Or it just helps in reaching our goals in the life. The
text talks about how the world looks down to the poverty, early death, meanness and a bad name.
Autumn Floods
Conferring to this text, it explains that mostly within our world, we usually conclude that
we are vitally significant deriving all this from our narrow-minded definitions. Also, the people
ascertain their life worth through the influence of what they do in their inner corner or little world.
Conversely, people tend to see no value to themselves simply because they didn’t see any impact
to the actions they undertook in their life7. The text tells us that we should venture beyond the
borders to view and start to view that we have known as life up is just but a small portion of what
we have to understand.
Bestowing to the text, the lord of the river was ever thinking according to the vastness of
himself and who really he was and mostly he mesmerized on his grandeur, meaning that, only
when he decided to venture out to the see and learned that his thoughts were very different
compared to the others in the see or what they see truly presented. For that matter, he learned that
7
Xiang, M., & Pascual, E. (2016). Debate with Zhuangzi. Pragmatics. Quarterly
Publication of the International Pragmatics Association (IPrA), 26(1), 137-162.
9
he has been primitive in all his thinking until the time when he allowed himself to learn more and
to gain a larger view.
In accordance to this Zhuangzi text, we can deduce the teaching value that the human
beings tend to see themselves as the center of all the creation. However, in case they can allow
themselves to have a larger view, they end up noticing that they have been deceitful to themselves
just like the little hair on the body of a horse. Therefore, the world has much to offer than what we
usually exist in our limited perception of thinking.
More point to mention is that the point of view is very powerful influence over
understanding our life and shouldn’t be ignored whenever we tend to derive meaning to the life we
live. It is then prudent to for the people in the entire cosmos to allow themselves to come to proper
conceptualization of the way the world offers as well as the conditions underlying in this, then
later they will be able to see that there is definitely no distinction that holds fast in the everfluctuating stream of the realism. Thus, by so doing, they will be able to comprehend more about
themselves.
The text also says that for one to be greater should not aim at hurting other people or even
crediting himself for what he does with clarity and mercy, (Wang, 2017). Moreover, the great man
should not seek profit or should not despise those who do the work. He should never struggle to
gain the wealth as well as laying to gain modesty. Nevertheless, the great man should not rely on
help from other people, and this should not make him proud of his self-reliance as well as he should
not despise the greedy. The same great person is said to be able to stay behind the crown at some
point, though he is not supposed to despise those who go forward to fight, fawn and flatter. Since
the stipends and titles are all his, there is no cause for the joy, shame, punishment, disgrace. This
section can be used as principles to guide the leader in his leadership. Lastly, the text tells us that
10
the successful man has no concern with the reputation, and the actual virtuous should not have a
concern with the possessions which depicts the self-discipline.
Mountain tree
Zhuangzi came with this text to come up with a unique philosophical style that has great
value to the tendency of him being treated as an irrational. He is said to write philosophical fantasy
in this text instead of giving out the direct argument. According to the highest number of the
western interpreter of this style of writing, they said that Zhuangzi’s style signals a romantic and
rejects analysis and reasoning.
The text is a plausible hypothesis that is presented in fantasy dialogue to illustrate and
affirm his perspectivism. Zhuangzi puts the niches for the consideration as if he is endorsing them,
then later on the abandons them. This can be witnessed in how he comes up with a fanciful
conversation among the fantasy creatures such as converted Confucians, rebellious thieves, and
the distorted freaks as well as in his internal monologue. Going through Zhuangzi dialogue, it
seems that he wanted to challenge us in finding out which voice was his as well as his point of
view. Even in his monologues, they end up in rhetorical questions that we as the reader we are the
ones to find answers to the same, such as “is there any X or no?
Zhuangzi comes up with his application of relativism by application of the concept of ‘use.’
He says that everything is useful in some niche or the other, but there are some positions that even
the most valuable thing becomes useless. To illustrate this, Zhuangzi uses the parable of the big
useless tree in what he calls The Mountain Tree, of which didn’t get chopped down for the gourd
that was useless to eat but could take a nice boat. This argument seems to be pragmatic where the
author seems to be relatively controversial to some values. This observation does not affirm the
11
way we do abandon the pragmatic arguments in our life, but it prompts us to be sensitive to how
controversial our assumptions about success might be wrong.
Zhuangzi uses the perspectivism in a more consistent direction by combining in his Mohist
refutation knowledge. However, he doesn’t allow himself to fall into the trap of rejecting the
language. We were natural in his arguments thus this doesn’t credit one to have abandoned the
language8. Zhuangzi comes up with the pluralism perspectivism that differs from what the western
subjectivity, as he doesn’t define the internal representations and individual consciousness. The
text tells us we should not presuppose some absolute or the total view to recognize that our personal
views are partial. Moreover, we should use our standard of success that is present to assess the
practical success of the alternative perspectives that nature provides, (Xiang and Pascual, 2016).
Constrained in will
The constrained will, on the other hand, means that one must be a loft in action, avoid his
customs, be elevated in his discourse, critical and sullen and lastly must be indagated by his
concern. The text tries to explain how hard it is to be constrained in the will as well as attaining
loftiness; getting training morals without any benevolence, and getting success and nice order
without accomplishments as well as reputation and lastly leisure without rivers and seas. It is also
impossible to have a long span of life without any inductions such as losing everything and gaining
everything, (Lee, 2018).
8
Xiang, M., & Pascual, E. (2016). Debate with Zhuangzi. Pragmatics. Quarterly
Publication of the International Pragmatics Association (IPrA), 26(1), 137-162.
12
The key aim of the Constrained in Will is to explain the way of recuperation, involving
moral cultivation, ideal personality, and health promotion. Proposed to abandon the pursuit of
visible traces of abandonment of emotions and joys and sorrows, to remove fraud and deception,
so that the spirit is pure.
Conclusion
To sum up, going throughout the Zhuangzi texts one can learn various lesson concerning
Zhuangzi’s life. Zhuangzi comes up with the mastering life text to find out transcendent principles
in more humble localities and this story; he fixes in the special skills of artisans and servants. The
autumn flood can be used as principles to guide the leader in his leadership. Moreover, the text
tells us that the successful man has no concern with the reputation, and the actual virtuous should
not have a concern with the possessions which depicts the self-discipline. In the mountain tree text,
Zhuangzi says that we should use our standard of success that is present to assess the practical
success of the alternative perspectives that nature provides.in the supreme happiness text, reveals
a procedure that should be followed to achieve ever-lasting happiness. According to the text, the
mind is said to be cloudy sky which in real sense means that the pure and clear but overcast by the
clouds of the delusions.
Therefore, we can deduce that we should treat each other with care, conditional and
tentative. He seems to be a believer of that the flexibility advise is very hard to follow if at the
same time we accept the work of the single-minded and convention.
13
Bibliography
Ames, R. T. (Ed.). (2016). Wandering at Ease in the Zhuangzi. SUNY Press.
Coutinho, S. (2017). Zhuangzi and early Chinese philosophy: Vagueness, transformation, and
paradox. Routledge.
Fox, A. D. (2015). Zhuangzi: Text and Context. By Livia Kohn. Honolulu: Three Pines Press,
2014. 335 pp. ISBN‐10: 1931483272; ISBN‐13: 978‐1931483278.
Law, C. Y. (2017). Happiness, well-being, and the Zhuangzi. HKU Theses Online (HKUTO).
Lee, J. K. (2018). What Is Happy Death? From the Perspective of Happiness Education. Online
Submission.
Tzu, C. (2016). Zhuangzi (Longman Library of Primary Sources in Philosophy). Routledge.
Wang, Q. (2017). A comparative study of the subject in Jacques Lacan and Zhuangzi. Asian
Philosophy, 27(3), 248-262.
Xiang, M., & Pascual, E. (2016). Debate with Zhuangzi. Pragmatics. Quarterly Publication of the
International Pragmatics Association (IPrA), 26(1), 137-162.
Xiang, M., & Pascual, E. (2016). Debate with Zhuangzi. Pragmatics. Quarterly Publication of the
International Pragmatics Association (IPrA), 26(1), 137-162.

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