MGMT 2383 Saint Mary Micro Organizational Behavior Discussion

Description

This week, please reflect on the course overall. Share two things that you found the most valuable about this course. This can be a topic, activity, chapter, or even one of my pieces of “wisdom” from the videos! Please try to be genuine about sharing two things that you can see yourself applying to your personal or professional life in the future, and WHY these two things stuck out to you.

please about leadership and value ,Course power point has been attached.

100-200 words plz.

Chapter 9
Leadership
Week 8
February 25March 3
Outline







What is leadership
Management versus leadership
Trait theory
Behavioural theory
Contingency theory
Transformational Leadership
Quickfire questions
What is leadership?
• The influence that particular individuals
exert on the goal achievement of
others, in an organizational context
• Organizations spend billions of dollars
each year on developing and hiring
leaders
• Effective leaders motivate people and
gain their commitment, and have a
positive effect on organizations
Leadership
• Any organizational member can exert
influence on other members, however
some are in a better position to “lead”
than others
• Formal leaders are those whose job
explicitly state they are expected to
influence other
• However, not all those in a formal
leadership role will lead…
Management vs. Leadership
What is the difference?
Is there a difference?
Management vs. Leadership
Management vs. Leadership
According to Kotter (1996):
Leaders provide vision and strategy,
motivation, and inspiration, and they
communicate direction to all members of
the organization.
Managers implement vision and strategy,
allocate resources, and handle day-to-day
operational problems
Trait Theory of Leadership
• Suggests that leadership depends on
the personal qualities or traits of the
leader
• The “born-leader” theory
• Also called “Great Man” theories
• Focused on identifying innate qualities
possessed by effective individual
leaders
Trait Theory – Limitations
• Traditionally focused on men and traits
considered to be masculine
• Ignored context of leaders & followers
(looks at leader, not the situation)
• Does not consider followers
• Traits are culturally determined
(different in different parts of the world)
Behavioural Theory
• A perspective that focuses on what leaders do (their
actions), and how they behave towards their
followers
• Two dimensions of behaviour:
– Task-orientated behavior (initiating structure)
– Relationship-orientated behavior (consideration)


Consideration: The extent to which a leader is
approachable and shows personal concern and
respect for employees
Initiating Structure: The degree to which a leader
concentrates on group goal attainment
Situational Theories of Leadership
• Suggests that the effectiveness of a
leadership style is contingent on the
setting
• The setting includes the characteristics
of the employees, the nature of the
task, and the characteristics of the
organization
• Includes contingency theory, path-goal
theory, participative leadership
Contingency Theory
• Developed by Fiedler
• States that the association between
leadership orientation and group
effectiveness is contingent on how
favourable the situation is for exerting
influence
• Different orientations needed
depending on the situation
Path-Goal Theory
• Developed largely by Robert House
• States that the most important activities of
leaders are those that clarify the paths to
various goals of interest to employees
• Theory is concerned with the situations
under which various leader behaviours
(directive, supportive, participative,
achievement-oriented) are most effective
• See p. 329, exhibit 9.3
Participative Leadership
• Involving employees in making workrelated decisions
• Participation can involve individual
employees or the entire group of
employees that reports to the leader
• The choice of individual/group
participation strategy is tailored to
specific situations
Potential Problems of Participative Leadership
• Time and energy – the effort required to be
participative is significant; limits a quick
response time
• Loss of power – some leaders feel reluctant
to give up control and feel this will reduce
their power and influence
• Lack of receptivity/knowledge – employees
might not be receptive to a participative
approach, or might not have the expertise to
contribute
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
• A theory of leadership that focuses on
the quality of the relationship that
develops between a leader and an
employee
• Based on Social exchange theory
• Suggests that individuals who are
treated favourably by others feel obliged
to reciprocate by responding positively
and returning that favourable treatment
in some manner
Transactional vs. Transformational
Transactional leadership:
• leadership that is based on a
straightforward exchange between the
leader and the followers
Transformational leadership:
• leadership that provides followers with
a new vision that instills true
commitment
Transformational Leadership
• Transformational leadership involves
the leader decisively changing the
beliefs and attitudes of followers to
correspond to a new vision, and,
motivates them to achieve performance
beyond expectations
• Probably the most well-known and
heavily researched theory of our time
Transformational Leadership
Four Key Dimensions
1. Intellectual Stimulation – when individuals are
stimulated to think about problems, issues and
strategies in new ways
2. Individualized Consideration – involves treating
employees as distinct individuals
3. Inspirational Motivation – involves the
communication of visions that are appealing and
inspiring to followers
4. Charisma – The ability to command strong loyalty
and devotion from followers and thus have the
potential for strong influence among them
Emerging Theories of Leadership
• Leadership is one of the mostresearched topics in OB…which means
there are a lot of theories out there!
• Includes:







Empowering leadership
Charismatic leadership
Ethical leadership
Authentic leadership
Servant leadership
Followership
Etc.
Quick-fire Questions




Can we teach leadership?
Can we learn to be better leaders?
Is leadership just common sense?
Is leadership actually associated with
better organizational performance?
Quick-fire Questions
• Can we teach leadership? WE CAN
TEACH WHAT DEFINITELY DOESN’T
WORK AND WHAT MIGHT WORK
DEPENDING ON THE SITUATION
• Can we learn to be better leaders?
• Is leadership just common sense?
• Is leadership actually associated with
better organizational performance?
Quick-fire Questions
• Can we teach leadership?
• Can we learn to be better leaders? WE
CAN BE COACHED IN LEADERSHIP
LIKE IN ANY SPORT OR SKILL.
ALSO WE CAN LEARN WHAT NOT
TO DO AND WHAT TO DO MORE
OFTEN (ex. Say thank you more)
• Is leadership just common sense?
• Is leadership actually associated with better
organizational performance?
Quick-fire Questions
• Can we teach leadership?
• Can we learn to be better leaders?
• Is leadership just common sense? NO.
LEADERSHIP IS THE MOST HEAVILY
RESEARCHED TOPIC IN
MANAGEMENT BECAUSE IT IS SO
COMPLEX!
• Is leadership actually associated with
better organizational performance?
Quick-fire Questions




Can we teach leadership?
Can we learn to be better leaders?
Is leadership just common sense?
Is leadership actually associated with
better organizational performance? IT
DEPENDS WHO YOU ASK AND HOW
YOU MEASURE ORGANIZATIONAL
PERFORMANCE.
Chapter 4
Values,
Attitudes &
Work Behaviour
Week 6
February 11-17th
What are values?
What are values?
Values:
• A broad tendency to prefer certain
states of affairs over others
• Values have to do with what we
consider good and bad
• Signal how we believe we should and
should not behave
• Are very general
What are your values?
Think about
last week’s
discussion
activity
Generational Differences




Traditionalists
Baby Boomers
Generation X
Millennials
• See page 128 in textbook for example
Cultural Differences
• Values are often different across
cultures
• This has been the cause of difficulties
for businesses with global operations
• What are some cultural differences in
values that you can see?
Hofstede’s Study
• Surveyed 116,000 IBM employees in
40/76 countries
• Four (five) basic dimensions of workrelated values that differ across culture
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
Individualism/Collectivism
Long-term/short-term Orientation
Masculinity
Importing/Exporting OB
What does it mean when we talk about
importing/exporting management
theories?
Importing/Exporting OB
• We often act as if the western way of
managing is best; capitalistic and profitfocused
• Apply “our” models to other countries
• Also have imported ideas, example,
from Japan – Team orientation, lean
production, etc.
• Basic value differences make this
challenging at times
Global Workers
• Organizations must be prepared to
serve customers across different
cultures
• Requires employees across different
cultures and with high cultural
intelligence
• CI: The capability to function and
manage well in culturally diverse
environments
What are attitudes?
Attitude:
• A fairly stable evaluative tendency to
respond consistently to some specific
object, situation, person, or category of
people
• Highly influential on behaviour
• Attitudes are a function of what we think
and feel; product of beliefs and values
• Examples: p. 136
Job Satisfaction
Job Satisfaction




A collection of attitudes that workers have
about their jobs
Facet satisfaction: the tendency to be more or
less satisfied with various parts of the job
Overall satisfaction: an overall indicator of a
person’s attitude towards their job that cuts
across various facets
Measured by Job Descriptive Index (JDI) or
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
What determines job satisfaction?
Discrepancy Theory:
• A theory that job satisfaction stems from
the discrepancy between the job
outcomes wanted and the outcomes
that are perceived to be obtained
What determines job satisfaction?
Fairness:


Distributive fairness: fairness that occurs when
people receive the outcomes they think they
deserve from their jobs
Equity theory: A theory that job satisfaction
stems from a comparison of the inputs one
invests in a job and the outcomes one receives
in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of
another person or group
What determines job satisfaction?
Fairness:


Procedural fairness: fairness that occurs when
the process used to determine work outcomes
is seen as reasonable
Interactional fairness: fairness that occurs
when people feel they have received respectful
and informative communication about an
outcome
What determines job satisfaction?
Disposition




Your disposition may impact how satisfied you
are with your job
Dispositional view suggests that some people
are predisposed by their personality to have
higher or lower levels of job satisfaction
For example, disposition measured early in
adolescence is correlated with one’s job
satisfaction as an adult
Five-factor model used to determine
correlation between disposition & job
satisfaction
What determines job satisfaction?
Mood & Emotions




Emotions: Intense, often short-lived feelings
caused by a particular event
Moods: Less intense, longer-lived, and more
general feelings
Emotional contagion: The tendency for moods
and emotions to spread between people or
throughout a group; can influence JS
Emotional regulation: Requirement for people
to conform to certain “display rules” in their job
behaviour in spite of their true mood or
emotions
Emotional Labour
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pzU
0KRYQEok
• When employees are expected to be
upbeat, positive, remain calm, etc.
regardless of customer behaviour
Key Contributors to JS

Mentally challenging work



Adequate compensation


We all need and want $$$$$
Career opportunities


Work that tests employees’ skills and abilities and allows
them to set their own working pace
Some employees prefer repetitive, unchallenging work
If we have opportunities to advance in our career we
may be more satisfied
People

If we like the people we work with versus hate them, this
will make a big difference to our JS
Consequences of JS

Absenteeism


Turnover


If JS is low, absenteeism is likely higher
If JS is low, turnover is likely higher
Performance






If JS is low, performance may be lower
If JS is too high, performance may be lower
If JS is relatively high, performance may be higher
Stronger relationship for high-tech jobs; weaker relationship for
labour jobs
People doing complex jobs have more control over their level
of performance
Cause and effect? Performance can contribute to job
satisfaction; i.e. perform well, receive reward, be satisfied
Organizational Citizenship
OCB
• Voluntary, informal behaviour that
contributes to organizational
effectiveness




Voluntary behaviour
Spontaneous
Contributes to organizational effectiveness
Unlikely to be rewarded explicitly
Organizational Commitment
Organizational Commitment

An attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between an
employee and an organization
Affective Commitment


Commitment based on identification and involvement with an
organization
Example?
Continuance Commitment


Commitment based on the costs that would be incurred in
leaving an organization
Example?
Normative Commitment
• Commitment based on ideology or a feeling of obligation to an
organization
• Example?
Next Week
• Reading Week!
• There will be a
short discussion
question…
• Have a great &
well-deserved
break from
classes!

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