Purdue Mick Mulvaney, White House Chief of Staff Research Paper

Description

The Assignment:

– Pick a position in the United States Government and write a paper on that position (i.e. President, Vice President, Secretary of State, cabinet head, Head of FBI, Supreme Court Justice, or any other position).

In your paper you should:

  1. Describe the role, explain what does this person does and the sources of this person’s power (i.e. Constitution or another law or bill), who does this person share power with, who does this person report to / who provides a “check and balance” on this position?
  2. Explain how the role is filled (i.e. appointed or elected and the process).
  3. Who is the current person in this position and provide background information about this person and major goals / initiatives this individual has in this position.
  4. Is this person affiliated with a political party? What role does that play in this position (i.e. with election or appointment, with how this person carries out their duties, with decisions the person makes, with accountability)?
  5. What are the major issues confronting the person in this position currently?
  6. What is your opinion of this person and why?
  7. Based on your research, what are the major impacts in history of this position and explain.

Length and Style:

Your paper should be in APA format and double spaced. Your paper should include a cover page, three (3) written pages at least, and a works cited page.

Sources: You must use at least 4 credible sources.

  • All 4 sources must be either secondary or primary sources and are credible sources from either library books or library databases. Wikipedia and Google are NOT sources. You must use at least one (1) chart, graph or other form of visual medium that you interpret / explain / comment on in your paper.
  • Please use the librarians – they are eager to help you with your research. Include citations for ALL sources you use. A separate works cited page MUST be included, along with short form citations within the paper. As a general rule you should have at least one citation for every paragraph except the introduction and conclusion.

Running head: VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
1
Green text boxes
contain explanations
of APA style
guidelines.
The title
should
summarize
the paper’s
main idea and
identify the
variables
under
discussion
and the
relationship
between
them.
Blue boxes contain
directions for writing
and citing in APA
style.
Varying Definitions of Online Communication and
Their Effects on Relationship Research
The title
should be
centered on
the page,
typed in 12point Times
New Roman
Font. It
should not be
bolded,
underlined, or
italicized.
Elizabeth L. Angeli
The author’s
name and
institution
should be
doublespaced and
centered.
State University
Author Note
Elizabeth L. Angeli, Department of Psychology, State University.
Elizabeth Angeli is now at Department of English, Purdue University.
This research was supported in part by a grant from the Sample Grant
Program.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Elizabeth
Angeli, Department of English, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 55555.
Contact: author@boiler.edu
The author note should appear on printed articles and identifies each author’s
department and institution affiliation and any changes in affiliation, contains
acknowledgements and any financial support received, and provides contact
information. For more information, see the APA manual, 2.03, page 24-25.
Note: An author note is optional for students writing class papers, theses, and
dissertations..
An author note should appear as follows:
First paragraph: Complete departmental and institutional affiliation
Second paragraph: Changes in affiliation (if any)
Third paragraph: Acknowledgments, funding sources, special circumstances
Fourth paragraph: Contact information (mailing address and e-mail)
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shortened
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punctuation.
The running
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should be in
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The running
head should be
flush left, and
page numbers
should be flush
right. On the
title page, the
running head
should include
the words
“Running head.”
For pages
following the
title page,
repeat the
running head in
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“Running head.”
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
2
Abstract
The
abstract is
a brief
summary of
the paper,
allowing
readers to
quickly
review the
main points
and
purpose of
the paper.
The
abstract
should be
between
150-250
words.
Abbreviations and
acronyms
used in the
paper
should be
defined in
the
abstract.
This paper explores four published articles that report on results from research conducted
on online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships and their relationship to
computer-mediated communication (CMC). The articles, however, vary in their
definitions and uses of CMC. Butler and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF)
interactions are more effective than CMC, defined and used as “email,” in creating
feelings of closeness or intimacy. Other articles define CMC differently and, therefore,
offer different results. This paper examines Cummings, Butler, and Kraut’s (2002)
research in relation to three other research articles to suggest that all forms of CMC
should be studied in order to fully understand how CMC influences online and offline
relationships.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, face-to-face communication
The word
“Abstract”
should be
centered
and typed
in 12 point
Times New
Roman. Do
not indent
the first
line of the
abstract
paragraph.
All other
paragraphs
in the
paper
should be
indented.
The title
should be
centered on
the page,
typed in 12point Times
New Roman
Font. It
should not be
bolded,
underlined, or
italicized.
The introduction presents
the problem
that the
paper
addresses.
See the OWL
resources on
introductions:
http://owl.en
glish.purdue.e
du/owl/resou
rce/724/01/
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
3
Varying Definitions of Online Communication and
Their Effects on Relationship Research
Numerous studies have been conducted on various facets of Internet relationships,
focusing on the levels of intimacy, closeness, different communication modalities, and
the frequency of use of computer-mediated communication (CMC). However,
contradictory results are suggested within this research because only certain aspects of
CMC are investigated, for example, email only. Cummings, Butler, and Kraut (2002)
suggest that face-to-face (FtF) interactions are more effective than CMC (read: email) in
creating feelings of closeness or intimacy, while other studies suggest the opposite. To
understand how both online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships are affected
by CMC, all forms of CMC should be studied. This paper examines Cummings et al.’s
research against other CMC research to propose that additional research be conducted to
In-text
citations
that are
direct
quotes
should
include the
author’s/
authors’
name/s,
the
publication
year, and
page
number/s.
If you are
paraphrasing a
source,
APA
encourages
you to
include
page
numbers:
(Smith,
2009, p.
76).
The title of
the paper is
centered
and not
bolded.
better understand how online communication affects relationships.
If an article
has three
to five
authors,
write out all
of the
authors’
names the
first time
they
appear.
Then use
the first
author’s
last name
followed by
“et al.”
Literature Review
In Cummings et al.’s (2002) summary article reviewing three empirical studies on
online social relationships, it was found that CMC, especially email, was less effective
than FtF contact in creating and maintaining close social relationships. Two of the three
reviewed studies focusing on communication in non-Internet and Internet relationships
mediated by FtF, phone, or email modalities found that the frequency of each modality’s
use was significantly linked to the strength of the particular relationship (Cummings et
al., 2002). The strength of the relationship was predicted best by FtF and phone
APA
requires
you to
include the
publication
year
because
APA users
are
concerned
with the
date of the
article (the
more
current the
better).
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
4
communication, as participants rated email as an inferior means of maintaining personal
Use an
appendix to
provide
brief
content
that
supplement
s your
paper but is
not directly
related to
your text.
relationships as compared to FtF and phone contacts (Cummings et al., 2002).
If you are
including an
appendix,
refer to it
in the body
of your
paper.
found that participants corresponded less frequently with their Internet partner (5.2 times
Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed an additional study conducted in 1999 by the
HomeNet project (see Appendix A for more information on the HomeNet project). In
this project, Kraut, Mukhopadhyay, Szczypula, Kiesler, and Scherlis (1999) compared
the value of using CMC and non-CMC to maintain relationships with partners. They
per month) than with their non-Internet partner (7.2 times per month) (as cited in
Cummings et al., 2002). This difference does not seem significant, as it is only two times
less per month. However, in additional self-report surveys, participants responded
feeling more distant, or less intimate, towards their Internet partner than their nonInternet partner. This finding may be attributed to participants’ beliefs that email is an
inferior mode of personal relationship communication.
Intimacy is necessary in the creation and maintenance of relationships, as it is
defined as the sharing of a person’s innermost being with another person, i.e., selfdisclosure (Hu, Wood, Smith, & Westbrook, 2004). Relationships are facilitated by the
reciprocal self-disclosing between partners, regardless of non-CMC or CMC. Cummings
et al.’s (2002) reviewed results contradict other studies that research the connection
between intimacy and relationships through CMC.
Hu et al. (2004) studied the relationship between the frequency of Instant
Messenger (IM) use and the degree of perceived intimacy among friends. The use of IM
instead of email as a CMC modality was studied because IM supports a non-professional
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
5
environment favoring intimate exchanges (Hu et al., 2004). Their results suggest that a
positive relationship exists between the frequency of IM use and intimacy, demonstrating
that participants feel closer to their Internet partner as time progresses through this CMC
modality.
Similarly, Underwood and Findlay (2004) studied the effect of Internet
relationships on primary, specifically non-Internet relationships and the perceived
intimacy of both. In this study, self-disclosure, or intimacy, was measured in terms of
shared secrets through the discussion of personal problems. Participants reported a
significantly higher level of self-disclosure in their Internet relationship as compared to
their primary relationship. In contrast, the participants’ primary relationships were
reported as highly self-disclosed in the past, but the current level of disclosure was
perceived to be lower (Underwood & Findlay, 2004). This result suggests participants
turned to the Internet in order to fulfill the need for intimacy in their lives.
In further support of this finding, Tidwell and Walther (2002) hypothesized CMC
participants employ deeper self-disclosures than FtF participants in order to overcome the
limitations of CMC, e.g., the reliance on nonverbal cues. It was found that CMC partners
engaged in more frequent intimate questions and disclosures than FtF partners in order to
overcome the barriers of CMC. In their 2002 study, Tidwell and Walther measured the
perception of a relationship’s intimacy by the partner of each participant in both the CMC
and FtF conditions. The researchers found that the participants’ partners stated their
CMC partner was more effective in employing more intimate exchanges than their FtF
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
6
partner, and both participants and their partners rated their CMC relationship as more
intimate than their FtF relationship.
Discussion
In 2002, Cummings et al. stated that the evidence from their research conflicted
with other data examining the effectiveness of online social relationships. This statement
is supported by the aforementioned discussion of other research. There may be a few
possible theoretical explanations for these discrepancies.
Limitations of These Studies
A Level 2
heading
should be
flush with
the left
margin,
bolded, and
title case.
The discrepancies identified may result from a number of limitations found in the
materials reviewed by Cummings et al. These limitations can result from technological
constraints, demographic factors, or issues of modality. Each of these limitations will be
examined in further detail below.
Technological limitations. First, one reviewed study by Cummings et al. (2002)
A Level 3
heading
should
indented
0.5” from
the left
margin,
bolded, and
lower case
(except for
the first
word). Text
should
follow
immediately
after. If you
use more
than three
levels of
headings,
consult
section 3.02
of the APA
manual
(6th ed.) or
the OWL
resource on
APA
headings:
http://owl.en
glish.purdue.
edu/owl/reso
urce/560/16
/
examined only email correspondence for their CMC modality. Therefore, the study is
limited to only one mode of communication among other alternatives, e.g., IM as studied
by Hu et al. (2004). Because of its many personalized features, IM provides more
personal CMC. For example, it is in real time without delay, voice-chat and video
features are available for many IM programs, and text boxes can be personalized with the
user’s picture, favorite colors and text, and a wide variety of emoticons, e.g., :). These
options allow for both an increase in self-expression and the ability to overcompensate
for the barriers of CMC through customizable features, as stated in Tidwell and Walther
A Level 1
heading
should be
centered,
bolded, and
uppercase
and lower
case (also
referred to
as title
case).
Because all
research
has its
limitations,
it is
important
to discuss
the
limitations
of articles
under
examination
.
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
7
(2002). Self-disclosure and intimacy may result from IM’s individualized features,
which are not as personalized in email correspondence.
Demographic limitations. In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et
al. (2002) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college
students (see Appendix B for demographic information). It is possible the participants’
CMC through email was used primarily for business, professional, and school matters
and not for relationship creation or maintenance. In this case, personal self-disclosure
and intimacy levels are expected to be lower for non-relationship interactions, as this
communication is primarily between boss and employee or student and professor.
Intimacy is not required, or even desired, for these professional relationships.
Modality limitations. Instead of professional correspondence, however,
Cummings et al.’s (2002) review of the HomeNet project focused on already established
relationships and CMC’s effect on relationship maintenance. The HomeNet researchers’
sole dependence on email communication as CMC may have contributed to the lower
levels of intimacy and closeness among Internet relationships as compared to nonInternet relationships (as cited in Cummings et al., 2002). The barriers of non-personal
communication in email could be a factor in this project, and this could lead to less
intimacy among these Internet partners. If alternate modalities of CMC were studied in
both already established and professional relationships, perhaps these results would have
resembled those of the previously mentioned research.
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
8
Conclusions and Future Study
In order to gain a complete understanding of CMC’s true effect on both online
and offline relationships, it is necessary to conduct a study that examines all aspects of
CMC. This includes, but is not limited to, email, IM, voice-chat, video-chat, online
journals and diaries, online social groups with message boards, and chat rooms. The
effects on relationships of each modality may be different, and this is demonstrated by
the discrepancies in intimacy between email and IM correspondence. As each mode of
communication becomes more prevalent in individuals’ lives, it is important to examine
the impact of all modes of CMC on online and offline relationship formation,
maintenance, and even termination.
The
conclusion
restates
the
problem
the paper
addresses
and can
offer areas
for further
research.
See the
OWL
resource on
conclusions:
http://owl.
english.pur
due.edu/ow
l/resource/
724/04/
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
References
Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social
relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108.
Hu, Y., Wood, J. F., Smith, V., & Westbrook, N. (2004). Friendships through IM:
Examining the relationship between instant messaging and intimacy. Journal of
Computer-Mediated Communication, 10, 38-48.
Tidwell, L. C., & Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on
disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one
another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348.
Underwood, H., & Findlay, B. (2004). Internet relationships and their impact on primary
relationships. Behaviour Change, 21(2), 127-140.
Start the reference list on a new page, center the title “References,” and
alphabetize the entries. Do not underline or italicize the title. Double-space all
entries. Every source mentioned in the paper should have an entry.
9
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
10
Appendix A
The HomeNet Project
The first
paragraph
of the
appendix
should flush
with the
left margin.
Additional
paragraphs
should be
indented.
Started at Carnegie Mellon University in 1995, the HomeNet research project has
involved a number of studies intended to look at home Internet usage. Researchers began
this project because the Internet was originally designed as a tool for scientific and
corporate use. Home usage of the Internet was an unexpected phenomenon worthy of
extended study.
Each of HomeNet’s studies has explored a different facet of home Internet usage,
such as chatting, playing games, or reading the news. Within the past few years, the
explosion of social networking has also proven to be an area deserving of additional
research. Refer to Table A1 for a more detailed description of HomeNet studies.
Table A1
Label tables
and figures
in the
appendix as
you would
in the text
of your
manuscript,
using the
letter A
before the
number to
clarify that
the table or
figure
belongs to
the
appendix.
Description of HomeNet Studies by Year
Year  of  Study  
1995-­‐1996  
1997-­‐1999  
1998-­‐1999  
2000-­‐2002  
Contents  of  Study  
93 families in Pittsburgh involved in school
or community organizations
25 families with home businesses
151 Pittsburgh households
National survey
Begin each
appendix
on a new
page., with
the word
appendix in
the top
center. Use
an
identifying
capital
letter (e.g.,
Appendix
A,
Appendix B,
etc.) if you
have more
than one
appendix. If
you are
referring to
more than
one
appendix in
your text,
use the
plural
appendices
(APA only).
VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION
Appendix B
Demographic Information for Cummings et al. (2002)’s Review
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appendix
consists
entirely of
a table or
figure, the
title of the
table or
figure
should
serve as
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the
appendix.
11
GOVT Paper Rubric (TOTAL: 100 points):
Criteria
Control of
Syntax &
Mechanics (WC)
Early Thinker
Beginning Thinker
Practicing Thinker
Advancing Thinker
2 points
5 points
8 points
10 points
Wrote less than 3 pages for
the actual body of the paper.
Wrote between 3-5 full
pages for the actual body of
the paper.
Wrote between 3- 5 full pages
for the actual body of the
paper.
Wrote between 3-5 full pages for
the actual body of the paper.
Used APA Template, and
has less than 4 formatting
errors.
Used APA Template and has
less than 2 formatting errors.
2 points
5 points
8 points
10 points
Student does not use
correct grammar, spelling,
capitalization, and
punctuation. Multiple errors
found in submitted
assignment.
Student assignment
contains some incorrect
grammar, spelling
punctuation, and
capitalization.
Student assignment contains
few instances of incorrect
grammar, spelling,
punctuation, and capitalization.
Student uses correct grammar,
spelling, punctuation, and
capitalization.
Introduction
1 point
2 points
3 points
5 points
Context &
Purpose of
Writing (WC)
Specific position is not
stated in the introduction.
Omits introductory
paragraph.
In the introductory
paragraph, specific position
is not clearly stated or the
thesis or is too simplistic –
attempt was made but it is
very hard to tell what student
is going to write about in
paper.
In the introductory paragraph
the paper overview is clear but
it does not fully take into
account the complexities of the
issues / topic that will be
discussed.
In the introductory paragraph,
specific position is stated and
information is given that
demonstrates the student has
taken into account the
complexities of the issues.
Paper Contents
10 points
20 points
30 points
40 points
Explanation of
Issues (CT)
Varieties of perspectives are
not presented or the
presentation is inaccurate.
Varieties of perspectives are
acknowledged and accurate,
but presentation is shallow
Varieties of perspectives are
acknowledged, but details are
not fully presented.
Variety of perspectives are
acknowledged and presented
accurately with full, detailed
Paper Format
Did not use APA template.
Template has more than 4
formatting errors (i.e. uses
incorrect margin
specifications, multiple
spaces between paragraphs
to lengthen paper, centers
entire paper).
Control of
Syntax &
Mechanics (WC)
Grammar,
Spelling,
Punctuation, and
Capitalization
Student’s
Position (CT)
Topic Selection
(SR/I&S)
Existing
Points
10
Used APA Template.
Template has no formatting
errors: correct title page, fonts,
margins, double-spacing, no
spacing errors, correct header,
title page, and reference page.
10
5
40
Knowledge,
Research &
Views Included
(SR/I&S)
Analysis
(SR/I&S)
Content
Development
(WC)
Design Process
(SR/I&S)
Few concepts and
explanations addressed in a
context-rich manner.
Paper exceeds more than
30% direct quotes.
Topic viewpoints and issues
are stated without
clarification.
Little analysis to compare
and contrast primary and
secondary source
information. Sources are
not used to their full
capability.
Sources are not placed in a
logical place in the paper to
show thorough analysis – a
more thoughtful presentation
of sources would have
shown better analysis and
understanding.
Conclusion (CT,
SR/I&S)
Limitations &
Implications
(SR/I&S)
Influence of
Context &
Assumptions
(CT)
and simplistic.
Some key concepts and
explanations are addressed
in a somewhat organized,
context-rich manner.
Paper contains no more
than 30% direct quotes.
Topic viewpoints and issues
are stated but descriptions
are ambiguous and vague.
Some analysis to compare
and contrast primary and
secondary source
information. Sources could
be used in a more effective
manner.
Most key concepts and
explanations are addressed in
an organized, context-rich
manner.
Paper contains no more than
20% direct quotes.
Topic viewpoints and issues
are stated and defined so that
understanding is not seriously
impeded by omissions.
Adequate analysis to compare
and contrast primary and
secondary source information.
Sources are properly replied
upon, placed, and used.
information.
Key concepts and explanations
are addressed in a
comprehensive, organized,
context-rich manner.
Paper contains no more than
20% direct quotes.
Topic viewpoints and issues are
clearly stated and defined with all
relevant information necessary
for full understanding.
Complete analysis to compare
and contrast primary and
secondary source information.
1 point
2 points
3 points
5 points
Poor summary of
information.
Shallow summary of
information.
Good summary of information.
Excellent summary of
information.
Conclusion is inconsistently
tied to the information
presented.
Conclusion is tied to
information presented but
does not elaborate to tie in
information presentation in
paper to show
understanding of material.
Conclusion is logical and
related to paper, but is weakly
tied to evidence presented in
the paper.
Conclusion and related
outcomes are logical and reflect
student’s informed evaluation of
information based on evidence
and perspectives included in the
paper.
5
Evidence (CT,
WC)
References
Total
5 points
10 points
20 points
30 points
Complete, accurate APA
citations for a minimum of 2
sources that meet
assignment criteria.
Complete, accurate APA
citations for a minimum of 3
sources that meet
assignment criteria.
Complete, accurate APA
citations for a minimum of 4
sources that meet assignment
criteria.
Complete, accurate APA
citations for a minimum of 4
sources that meet assignment
criteria.
Less than 70% of the in-text
citations are complete and
accurate.
70% of the in-text citations
are complete and accurate.
80% of the in-text citations are
complete and accurate.
All in-text citations are complete
and accurate.
30
100
John B. Cade Library
Reference Department (225) 771‐2875
Website: http://www.lib.subr.edu
How to write an Outline for a Paper
What is an outline?
An outline can be defined as an organizational plan to help you draft a paper. Writing an
outline before beginning a paper is the most effective way to organize your thoughts. An
outline breaks down the parts of your thesis in a clear, hierarchical manner to help you see the
overall format of your paper.
Remember: The three parts of a paper included in your outline are: an INTRODUCTION, a BODY,
and a CONCLUSION.
INTRODUCTION‐ State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is
the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is
this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly
the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your
topic.
BODY‐ This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement.
Remember the Rule of 3, i.e., find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin
with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with strongest argument for your
final point.
CONCLUSION- Restate or reword your thesis. Summarize your arguments. Explain why you
have come to this particular conclusion.
What is a thesis statement?
A thesis statement declares what you believe and what you intend to prove. A good thesis
statement makes the difference between a thoughtful research project and a simple retelling of
facts.
A good tentative thesis will help you focus your search for information. But don’t rush! You
must do a lot of background reading before you know enough about a subject to identify key or
essential questions. You may not know how you stand on an issue until you have examined the
evidence. You will likely begin your research with a working, preliminary or tentative theses
which you will continue to refine until you are certain of where the evidence leads.
The thesis statement is typically located at the end of your opening paragraph. (The opening
paragraph serves to set the context for the thesis.)
Created by: M. Payne 9/08
John B. Cade Library
Reference Department (225) 771‐2875
Website: http://www.lib.subr.edu
Remember, your reader will be looking for your thesis. Make it clear, strong, and easy to find.
Sample idea for creating an outline for a paper
I will create an outline that focuses on the life of Senator Barack Obama.
How do you create an outline?
Keep in mind: If you’re not sure whether you have a good thesis statement, see whether you
can fit your ideas into one of these basic patterns.
{Something} {Does something} because {reason(s)}
Example:
Barack Obama made an early commitment to excel in school in order to achieve his goals in life.
For longer papers, thesis statements can be very complex.
While {a specific, named person} says {a direct quote or paraphrase from the source},
{a different, named person} says {something else}.
While the two authors disagree over {a minor point}, they both share a deep concern over {the
topic of your paper}. {Person one’s} refusal to accept {a particular point made by person two}
suggests that {person one} is {your thesis—stating the real reason why person one won’t agree
with person two}.
Created by: M. Payne 9/08
John B. Cade Library
Reference Department (225) 771‐2875
Website: http://www.lib.subr.edu
Sample Outline Format
Title of Outline (Place title of the outline here)
(Example) The Life and career of Barack Obama)
The topic of your paper is important. Try to sum up the point of your paper in one sentence or
phrase. Identifying the topic will focus the main point of your paper.
I.
II.
III.
Introduction‐(Brief comment leading into the subject matter‐ Thesis statement on the
subject)
Remember: A thesis statement tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the
paper.
Body‐ (The body covers what you will cover in your paper)
Example: Barack Obama’s Early Life, Marriage, Works, Run for President.
A. Early life in Honolulu, and Indonesia
1. Barack Obama’s family
a) Barack’s father
b) Barack’s mother
2. Barack Obama’s marriage
a) Michelle Obama
b) Barack Obama’s children
B. Barack Obama’s Career
1. Political Career
a) Civil Rights Lawyer
b) Community organizer
c) U.S. Senator
C. Barack Obama’s 2008 Presidential Campaign Issues
1. The Economy
a) The American Opportunity Tax Credit
b) Simplifying the Financial Aid Process
Conclusion
A. Analytical summary
1. Barack Obama’s early life
2. Barack Obama’s career
3. Barack Obama’s 2008 Presidential Campaign Issues
B. Thesis reworded
C. Concluding statement
Created by: M. Payne 9/08
John B. Cade Library
Reference Department (225) 771‐2875
Website: http://www.lib.subr.edu
Blank Sample Outline Format
Title of Outline
i.
ii.
Main topic
a. Important subtopic
b. Important subtopic
1. Detail
a. Sub‐detail
b. Sub‐detail
c. Sub‐detail
2. Detail
3. Detail
a. Sub‐detail
b. Sub‐detail
Main Topic
a. Important subtopic
b. Important subtopic
1. Detail
2. Detail
References
Obama, Barack. Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. New York: Times Books, 1995.
Strunk, W. (2000). The Elements of Style. New York: Longman.
Created by: M. Payne 9/08
John B. Cade Library
Reference Department (225) 771‐2875
Website: http://www.lib.subr.edu
Created by: M. Payne 9/08
Government Department
El Centro College
Research and Writing Assignment

This paper meets the requirements of the Core Objective Assessment (it measures the Student Learning Outcomes outlined below) AND
meets the requirements of the Quality Enhancement Plan (it is lined up with the AACU Critical Thinking Value Rubric).

The paper must be turned in via BlackBoard (for the Core Objective Assessment and QEP Data Collection – the data will be pulled randomly
from BlackBoard).
2305 – Federal Government
This assignment may address the following SLOs (Student Learning Outcomes) for 2305: Upon Completion of this Course, students will be
able to:
 SLO 2 – Demonstrate knowledge of the federal system.
 SLO 3 – Describe the separate of powers and checks and balances in both theory and practice.
 SLO 4 – Demonstrate knowledge of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government.
 SLO 5 – Evaluate the role of public opinion, interest groups, and political parties in the political system.
 SLO 6 – Analyze the election process.
 SLO 7 – Describe the rights and responsibilities of United States citizens.
 SLO 8 – Analyze issues and policies in United States politics.
The Assignment:
 Pick a position in the United States Government and write a paper on that position (i.e. President, Vice President, Secretary of State, cabinet
head, Head of FBI, Supreme Court Justice, or any other position).
 In your paper you should:
o Describe the role, explain what does this person does and the sources of this person’s power (i.e. Constitution or another law or bill),
who does this person share power with, who does this person report to / who provides a “check and balance” on this position?
o Explain how the role is filled (i.e. appointed or elected and the process).
o Who is the current person in this position and provide background information about this person and major goals / initiatives this
individual has in this position.
o Is this person affiliated with a political party? What role does that play in this position (i.e. with election or appointment, with how
this person carries out their duties, with decisions the person makes, with accountability)?
o What are the major issues confronting the person in this position currently?
o What is your opinion of this person and why?
o Based on your research, what are the major impacts in history of this position and explain.
Length and Style:
 Your paper should be in APA format and double spaced.
 Your paper should include a cover page, three (3) written pages at least, and a works cited page.
Sources:
 You must use at least 4 credible sources.
 All 4 sources must be either secondary or primary sources and are credible sources from either library books or library databases.
 Wikipedia and Google are NOT sources.
 You must use at least one (1) chart, graph or other form of visual medium that you interpret / explain / comment on in your paper.
 Please use the librarians – they are eager to help you with your research. Include citations for ALL sources you use. A separate works cited
page MUST be included, along with short form citations within the paper. As a general rule you should have at least one citation for every
paragraph except the introduction and conclusion.
BlackBoard:
 Your paper must be turned in via BlackBoard so it is maintained for college assessment purposes.
Rubric
 Your professor will go over the attached Rubric and make sure you understand how you will be graded on this assignment.
 Please review the attached Rubric on your own and refer to it when writing your paper to make sure you follow directions and receive the
maximum points possible.

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