python code for collaborative feature weighting as per my requirements


i need you to implement a python code for ranking research papers
based on collaborative feature weighting. there is a flowchart in the
paper, you need to add a incremental loop to the code for the flowchart
and also show the results when people without prior knowledge rank the
papers for the algorithm. let me know if you need any more information.

final requirements-

a code that implements the paper and incremental loop added to it.


when people rank papers with out any prior knowledge of the subject vs

results when they rank with knowledge (this should be obtained from the

above code)

Research Collection
Journal Article
Ranking Based on Collaborative Feature Weighting Applied to
the Recommendation of Research Papers
Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amir Esmaeil; Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amirehsan; Ralescu, Anca L.
Publication Date:
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Originally published in:
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence & Applications 9(2),
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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
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ETH Library
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications (IJAIA), Vol.9, No.2, March 2018
Amir E. Sarabadani Tafreshi1 , Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi1 and Anca L. Ralescu2
ETH Zürich, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Current research on recommendation systems focuses on optimization and evaluation of the quality of ranked recommended results. One of the most common approaches used in digital paper
libraries to present and recommend relevant search results, is ranking the papers based on their
features. However, feature utility or relevance varies greatly from highly relevant to less relevant,
and redundant. Departing from the existing recommendation systems, in which all item features
are considered to be equally important, this study presents the initial development of an approach
to feature weighting with the goal of obtaining a novel recommendation method in which features
which are more effective have a higher contribution/weight to the ranking process. Furthermore,
it focuses on obtaining ranking of results returned by a query through a collaborative weighting
procedure carried out by human users. The collaborative feature-weighting procedure is shown to
be incremental, which in turn leads to an incremental approach to feature-based similarity evaluation. The obtained system is then evaluated using Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain
(NDCG) with respect to a crowd-sourced ranked results. Comparison between the performance of
the proposed and Ranking SVM methods shows that the overall ranking accuracy of the proposed
approach outperforms the ranking accuracy of Ranking SVM method.
Ranking, recommendation system, feature weighting, support vector machine.
With the widespread of online publications and the growth of the internet use as a potential source
of knowledge, recommendation systems play an increasingly important role in helping researchers
to find the papers of their interest. Most recommendation systems return results ranked by their
relevancy [1] and users are then free to consider as many of the returned results, usually the top
ranked [7,8,20]. Learn-to-rank techniques have been proposed and used in various applications of
information retrieval including in recommendation systems [19]. During the process of ranking,
provided a group of items, their relative order may well depict their levels of relevance, preference,
or importance, depending on the application [6]. An important issue in recommendation systems
is that of similarity. Usually, the similarity of a pair of items is defined as an aggregate of the
similarities along their features [6]. Features may be numeric as well as nominal representing
certain facets of an item. For example, in content based recommendation systems characteristics
such as color, price, etc. are used [6]. Similarity computation methods [6] must take into account
the different types (numerical, nominal) of features.
The application domain also may determine the importance of a feature: the same feature
might have different levels of importance in different domains of applications [21]. Depending on
DOI : 10.5121/ijaia.2018.9204
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications (IJAIA), Vol.9, No.2, March 2018
the application, a feature might be redundant to some other features, less relevant or on the other
hand, highly relevant. For instance, in recommendation systems for publications, while selecting
a paper as a query, keywords of the paper might be more important to some user than the author
names, conference, and location of the conference.
Many feature selection techniques have been proposed to address the issue of relevancy [11].
In these techniques, redundant and less relevant features are removed and the remaining features
are considered to be (highly) relevant and used in the ranking process. However, the state-of-theart learning to rank approaches merely analyze the relation among the features from the aspects
of feature selection [12], which may not reflect the importance of a particular feature. This might
be problematic since features which may increase the accuracy of the system may get removed,
while, at the same time, some features which are not as useful are preserved.
On the other hand, it has been shown that good weighting techniques are more critical and
better than the feature selection process [5]. Ultimately, it is very important to weigh features
based on their level of importance in a specific domain [21].
The present work develops a recommendation system for digital paper libraries in which features are weighed. The input to the systems is a collection of features used to describe a paper. Such features include key-words, author names, conference name, location, and year. These
features are weighted based on their individual level of importance to identify correctly ranked
recommended papers.
The steps of the proposed approach, applied to a research paper recommendation system, are
as follows: (1) Feature extraction. Predefined publication features (e.g., Title, Author, etc.) are
extracted for each paper in the database considered; (2) Identification of ground-truth relevance.
Ground truth (GT) relevance is extracted from correctly ranked relevant papers (ground-truth) for
a possible user query (e.g. a paper); (3) Collaborative feature weighting. Feature importance,
and hence weight, is obtained from a survey of human users (in the experiment presented here, 20
computer science graduate students using digital libraries of their domain of expertise participated
in this survey); (4) Evaluate similarity. The similarities between query and the database of papers
along features are weighted by the corresponding feature weight and aggregated to produce the
final relevance scores. (5) Return results. A list of results, ranked by their relevance scores is
The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing the results, sorted by
their relevance, with the corresponding ground-truth ranked papers, which were already identified,
using Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) [13]. An empirical study on Ranking
SVM [14] is also conducted. Then, the achieved performance by proposed and Ranking SVM
methods is compared.
Recent work has explored three classes of methods for learning to rank, including point-wise, pairwise and list-wise methods [16]. Existing methods [9, 11, 17, 18] of ranking systems, have in common a two-stage paradigm [16]:(1) Select a subset of features via a feature selection method, and
(2) Learn a ranking predictor from the selected features. However, these separated stages cannot
guarantee that the selected features in the first stage are optimal for learning the ranking predictors
in the second stage [16]. Indeed, the feature selection process can lead to removal of some of the
features, which if processed together, might increase the accuracy of the recommending system.
Commonly used similarity measures (e.g. Euclidean distance based, or, for documents, the cosine
similarity) assume implicitly that all features are equally important. However, human common
sense in evaluation of similarity between items frequently gives different weights to various features [10]. Therefore, feature selection is replaced in this work with feature weighting such that
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications (IJAIA), Vol.9, No.2, March 2018
all features are preserved and individual feature effectiveness in the ranking process is conveyed
by a feature weight.
This section details the current approach, including the data set used, and the feature weighting
Ranking of research papers using feature weighting
First, a simple survey was conducted to obtain the weight of the features and implicitly the importance of each feature in the community under consideration. Weighting the features not only
helps to achieve a promising ranking result but also addresses collaboration of the users in recommendation systems and helps avoid the cold start issue. To weigh the relevant features in a
specific domain, the evaluators need deep knowledge and experience in that field and to know
the relative importance of the features. In general, utilizing expert judgments to directly allocate
weights is an issue in any weighting decision [2, 4]. Therefore, for the domain of application of
the method described here, a community of 20 graduate students in computer science was used
to weigh the features of research articles in computer science. The final weight of each feature
was calculated by averaging the weights assigned by all the subjects: W N = w1 +···+w
, where
W N denotes a feature average weight computed as an average of the weights given by N subjects
and Wi , i = 1, . . . , N is the weight assigned by user i. Averaging of weights to aggregate them
across all users has the advantage that it can be done incrementally. Indeed, when an additional
user assigns a weight, wN +1 , to an item then the updated average, W N +1 , can be easily obtained
as W N +1 = NN+1 W N + N 1+1 wN +1 . Table 1 shows the average weight (and normalized average
weights) of each feature achieved by conducting the survey.
Table 1: Feedback from the Survey
Normalized Weight
Given a query paper, the similarity between it and each paper of a list of publications is computed based on their feature similarities. These are calculated using the Boolean model for singlevalued features (e.g. conference) and probabilistic model of the traditional Robertson/Sparck Jones
formalization model [23] for multiple-valued features (e.g. keywords). The boolean model assigns
1 or 0 according to whether features match or not. The probabilistic model evaluates features similarity as follows: assume that feature k takes on the values kl , with l = 1, . . . , mk . Let pijkl be
the probability that value kl of feature k of the paper Oi is also the value of feature k of the paper
Oj , and let qijkl the probability that the value kl of feature k in Oi is not a value of feature k in
Oj . Then, the similarity along feature k of the two papers, Oi and Oj , is defined as in equation
(1) [22].

Sim(Fik , Fjk ) = l=1
log 1−p
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications (IJAIA), Vol.9, No.2, March 2018
Ranking stage
Selected Paper
Calculate the similarity
of the selected paper
with set of papers
Set of Papers
Apply the feature
Rank the papers
Set of Ranked
Feature weighting stage
Obtain features
weights by
conducting a survey
Feature weight
Figure 1: System overview.
The papers are sorted and ranked based on their overall similarity score, SimScoreN (Oi , Oj ),
obtained by the weighted aggregation of their individual feature similarities, shown in equation (2).
SimScoreN (Oi , Oj ) =
Sim(Fik , Fjk ) × W k,N
where Fik is feature k in paper Oi , and W k,N is its normalized weight, and Sim(Fik , Fjk ) computed from equation (1). Incrementally, considering the N + 1st subject leads to
SimScoreN +1 (Oi , Oj ) =
and letting α =
N +1 ,
Sim(Fik , Fjk ) × W k,N +1
SimScoreN +1 (Oi , Oj ) =
= α

Sim(Fik , Fjk ) × αW k,N + (1 − α)Wk,N +1
Sim(Fik , Fjk )W k,N +(1 − α)
= αSimScoreN (Oi , Oj ) + (1 − α)
Sim(Fik , Fjk )Wk,N +1
Wk,N +1 Sim(Fik , Fjk )
Figure 1 shows the system overview of the proposed approach.
The Dataset
The dataset used for experiments contains 20 conference papers from 2009 to 2012 on database
and information systems from the Global information systems group (ETH Zurich) website1 . Each
paper is described using the author name, Title, conference name, year, and location, the publisher,
and keywords.
Performance Evaluation
In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, ground-truth ranked publications
for each selected paper were needed. To find the ground-truth ranked list for each paper, a simple
crowd-sourcing algorithm was run. Students were asked to rank the most relevant papers to each
single paper independently. The results were aggregated by using a Local Keminization algorithm
[15] to obtain a single ground-truth ranked relevant paper list for each paper. The ground-truth
ranked list for each paper essentially reflects ranking which the considered community generally
assumes to be correct. A simple linguistic summarization of the returned results is implemented
by labeling the 1st 25% of the ranked papers as ‘definitely relevant’, the next 25% are labeled as
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications (IJAIA), Vol.9, No.2, March 2018
Figure 2: Ranking accuracies: evaluation and comparison of the proposed and the rank SVM methods
using NDCG at positions 1, 3, 5 and 10.
‘partially relevant’. The second half of the ground-truth ranked papers are labeled as ‘irrelevant’.
Ranking SVM was chosen as a reference to evaluate the relative performance of the proposed
method. To rank the papers relevant to each single paper using this method, a leave-one-out
strategy was used. Training was done using ground truth rankings of all except one paper. The
trained algorithm was then used to predict the ranking list of the left out paper. This procedure
was repeated for all the papers.
Many measures have been proposed to evaluate the ranking results, such as MAP [3] and
Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) [13]. In this paper, NDCG at the positions
of 1, 3, 5, and 10 was used to evaluate the ranking lists produced by the proposed and Ranking
SVM methods with respect to ground truth ranking lists resulted from aggregation of personalized
rankings from each student.
To analyze the performance of the methods in terms of NCDG, the results were averaged over the
twenty trials, as shown in Fig. 2.
As it can be seen from Figure 2 the approach adopted in this paper yields a much higher
accuracy with respect to the ground truth, on average in excess of 90%. Moreover, when compared
with the SVM approach, it can be seen that the two approaches agree in the accuracy of the highest
ranked item (paper). However, they strongly disagree in the accuracies at positions 3, 5, and 10,
where SVM accuracy varies between less than 60% to at most slightly over 70%.
We described a method that uses feature weights to reflect their importance in digital library systems to effectively recommend ranked related papers in response to a user query (selected paper).
The approach relies on explicit feature weighting in the ranking process, rather than implicitly
considering equal significance for the features. Being based on input from a community of human
users, the feature weighing approach can be thought of as collaborative feature weighting approach. Moreover, the incremental aspect of the procedure for feature weighting and for featurebased similarity computation ensures that collaborative weighting and similarity evaluation can
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications (IJAIA), Vol.9, No.2, March 2018
be easily adapted when more users provide their weights for the same set of items. This method
shows a high retrieval performance which also matches the human user perception. The current
work was specifically focused on the ranked style recommendation systems results and takes into
account the importance of features directly, rather than conducting a feature selection and then
leaving the rest of the process for learning to rank algorithms. The results show that a general
feature weighting procedure can help the ranking process to closely reach the ground-truth results.
Comparison to Ranking SVM using NDCG, shows that the collaborative weighting results in
a higher ranking accuracy and thus it conveys its effectiveness. The results obtained on the small
scale experiment described in this paper are sufficiently promising to warrant further exploration
of the proposed approach on a large database of papers. Although using a survey for feature
weighting leads to consistency with human user preferences, at the same time, running such a
survey can be very time consuming and expensive if it were required for the members of a research
community. Selecting such a group and how it can affect the objectives of a research community
is an issue to be explored in a future study, as are incremental approaches for collaborative weight
elicitation in which new survey subjects can be used to update feature weights.
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