Role of Department of Defense and National Guard in Homeland Security with Two Responses


Please respond to the following questions, using citations to support your response.

Provide a brief overview of the roles of the following entities as they relate to homeland security.

a. Department of Defense and in particular US Northern Command (NORTHCOM)

b. National Guard

Bonus question: What is the Posse Comitatus Act and how does it impact the use of the military assets of the Department of Defense in supporting homeland security activities?

See the forum rubric and attached example forum post to make sure you comply with the below instructions (in case you missed it last week)

Forum Rubric: Answers the forum question(s) with a relevant, coherent and scholarly initial forum response (>250 words) 20/20; demonstrates lesson comprehension in forums with no more than 10% of content as direct quotes 15/15; employs complete and proper APA in-text parenthetical citations of the required readings for this week 10/10; responses to two classmates initial forum answers (>100 words each) 20/20; quality answer to professor follow-up question 20/20, main forum has APA reference list at end of forum (including the required readings) 5/5; reads and acknowledges professors end of week wrap up forum 10/10.

Note: your primary forum post answering the assigned question for the week is due on Thursday by 1155PM EST, and per the syllabus you can lose up to 5 points per day for late work.

Instructions: Craft your main forum answer is like a short paper directly answering the topic of the week with a well written response that fully utilizes the required readings for the week with at least 250 words. Focus only on the assigned question(s) in a scholarly manner using in-text citations from the required readings (save your personal experiences and opinions for your four forum replies in any given week). Each sentence quoting or paraphrasing any ideas or information from any source must be cited properly including the author and year of publication. Do not cite the APUS lessons — they are just basic information to start the week off and is not meant to be a primary source for you to reference in your reply (to receive full credit you must utilize and cite the listed required readings for that week). If directly quoting from the readings (or other scholarly sources), you must also include the page or paragraph number that you are quoting from like (Hoffman, 2006, p.7) or for articles and sources without pages (Renner, 2016, para.15). If you are directly quoting and there is no page number to cite, then you manually count the paragraphs and cite that number. You also need to have an APA style reference list at the end of your post listing the sources employed. For more on APA citations and reference lists see the

APUS Style Guide for APA

. You must first provide your own initial forum answer before replying to any classmates or the professor. The four replies of the week are more of a free flowing classroom discussion which offers you an opportunity to leverage your relevant personal experiences and express your thoughts and opinions. Respond to at least two other students initial forum answers with a minimum of 100 words each. In your replies to classmates you may offer your opinion on the topic of the week, substantially support or supplement another student’s answer, or even politely disagree with or challenge their forum answer (but do not ask your classmates questions, or do so only as a last resort per the forum philosophy). You will also reply to my follow up question in your own forum string, and also read and acknowledge the Professor wrap up forum I post toward the end of the week. Also, do not be afraid to respectfully disagree with the readings or a classmate where you feel appropriate; as this should be part of your analysis process and employing critical thinking and academic freedom. Forum posts are graded based on demonstrated knowledge of the lesson and weekly readings, relevance, timeliness, as well as clarity and quality of analysis and synthesis. Sources utilized to support answers are to come from the weekly readings, but other credible and scholarly sources may be used to supplement (but not replace) the assigned readings. However, dictionaries, encyclopedias and Wikipedia are not scholarly and are not acceptable sources in college level work. Do not use non-scholarly open websites as sources for your reply to the main forum answer. All forum work must be completed within the academic week. When replying to the main forum answer make sure to include your name in the “topic title” of your initial forum answer/response.

Response to these Posts
Student 1
Department of Defense
President Bush back in 2002 signed a Unified Command Plan where NORTHCOM came
about. The mission of NORTHCOM is to intercept and plan Civil Support and Homeland
Defense operations. They are responsible for protecting their assigned area. NORTHCOM is
also part of the (NORAD) North American Aerospace Defense Command with along with their
counterpart Canada who watches for any incoming threats by air and sea. (Knight, 2008, pg 4)
The Department of Defense is also protecting and preventing any attacks on the U.S, its
possessions, and territories, in working with NORTHCOM. Department of Defense administers
missions in the military to include missile defense and its boundaries, air patrols and maritime
National Guard
In a domestic emergency, the National Guard is the first responder and lead military when it
comes to homeland security. The reserve is a vital component of the United States total
force. The National Guard along with Reserve units are sent all over the world to help active
units in their missions that involve wars and peacekeeping. National Guard also provides
administrative and medical support. With the terrorist threat to the homeland, Americans can
now become targets in the future.
The Militia Clause can be found in the United States Constitution in Article 1, Section 8. It
grants permission to utilize the National Guard under the state control but working for the federal
government to maintain and carry out the laws of Union, dominate insurgencies and fend off
invasions. (Lowenberg, pg 2 and 6)
Lowenberg, Timothy. “The Role of the National Guard in National Defense and Homeland
Security.” Home | National Guard Association of the United States. Web. 12 Mar 2018.
Knight, William. “CSR Report for Congress.”, 3 June 2008,
Student 2
The DoD NORTHCOM was formed in 2002 by President Bush and it was made to provide
command and control of the DoD’s homeland defense and to coordinate military support, which
is based out of Colorado. The role it plays in and how it relates to homeland security by holding
exercises with DHS and the National guard to prepare for any home front issues where the
military will be needed, “NORTHCOM participates in the Joint Interagency Coordination Group
while also working closely with both the Department of Homeland Security and the National
Guard Bureau.” (Knight, 2008, pg. 2) With this being said the DoD has worked closely with
DHS and the NGB for years and are well acquainted with each other and have the ability to work
together if need be.
As for the National Guard, “It is a ready and reliable force accessible to the states for both state
and combined state and federal purposes and to the federal government for federal purposes.”
(Lowenberg, n.d, pg.1) The National Guard plays a huge role in DHS depending on what Title
status they are on, since I am active duty working on a guard base I have learn a lot when it
comes to Title 32 status and Title 10 status. Even though on Title 32 status they are under the
chain of command from the Governor they belong to the state but when on Title 10 status they
fall under POTUS for chain of commander. While at home station most National Guardsmen are
Title 32 once the state gets tasked for a deployment they turn into Title 10 status which makes
the Active Duty.
Knight, W. (2008). Homeland Security: Roles and Missions for United States Northern
Command. Congressional Research Service. CRS Report RL34342. Washington, DC: Office of
Congressional Information and Publishing.
Lowenberg, T. J. (n.d.) The role of the National Guard in homeland defense and homeland
security. National Guard Association of the United States.

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