the global wage gap


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representative Pakistan


It is write to state an opinion speaking on behalf of


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Wage gap is the difference in rates of pay between two different groups of people. The main issue of the global wage gap is considered to be the
gender wage gap. The gender pay gap is the average difference between a man’s and a woman’s remuneration.
The gender pay gap is an issue which affects and implicates all regions and most countries of the world, it is an injustice as women are condemned to
earn less money than men. The fact that there is wage inequality affects everyone, as it results in less money that women receive and that mothers
can invest on their children’s health and education or on their own education too Therefore poverty still exists as less money is spent in basic needs
such as in the Health care system and in Education, that can make a nation develop and become more economically powerful.
Over the years this situation has impoved as women passed from having no occupation and receiving no education at all, to have the rights to vote
with the women’s suffrage movement. After the First World War (WWI), countries such as Sweden, the Netherlands, The United Kingdom and The
United States gave women the rights to vote and work, as they had been
occupying their job’s positions while men were fighting in this war. The world
passed from having only New Zealand and Australia as countries which
granted women the right to vote before the First World War, to have part of
the most powerful nations in the world with these rights allowed after WWI.
Following this measures, many women around the world started movements
and campaigns with the demand of having the same rights as men,
incluiding the political voice one.
There are two distinct numbers regarding the pay gap: unadjusted versus
adjusted pay gap. The latter takes into account differences in hours worked,
occupations chosen, education and job experience. For example, someone
who takes time off (e.g. maternity leave) will likely not earn as much as
someone who does not take time off from work. Factors like this contribute
to lower yearly earnings for women. With all external factors adjusted for the
wage gap no longer exists. Unadjusted pay gaps are much higher. In the
United States, for example the unadjusted average female’s annual salary
has commonly been cited as being 78% of the average male salary,
compared to 93% for the adjusted average salary for graduates.
Gender discrimination and segregation is an issue affecting the whole world,
which is mostly demonstrated in the unequal labour possibilities,
development in the professional aspects, and wage that women receive in
comparison with men.
Regarding the gender pay gap, this is a global problem in which women are
discriminated and segregated from society, by affecting their earnings and
opportunities in their professional careers. The supposed reasons for this
wage gap to exist are the difference in jobs, hours of work and education
men and women receive; but most of the times this pay gap does not follow
any significant reason for it to exist, as although both men and women work
with the same dedication in time and quality on their tasks and activities,
men receive higher salaries than women.
While much has been done to advance in the fight against this kind of
inequity between men and women, the discrimination against women still
exists. In many countries around the world, with not a big distinction
between Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) and More
Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs), the female gender receive less
education than men, or with less quality, or not at all. Besides, their wages
are less than those of their opposite sex, while performing the same job.
They are many times limited to work in job positions which demand less
knowledge and less preparation than the ones destined for men. Apart from
this, women are less seen in positions which demand higher authority over
men, and also they are usually not given the possibility to take critical
Although many people take into consideration how society has completely
advanced in terms of gender equality by comparing the current situation to
the fact that women were first forbidden from working in any job, except
from being a housewife, matron or governess, they should realize that
measures should be taken to close the unequal pay gap. This still exists and
affects the population. Added to this, women’s rights should also be
respected, especially in Less Economically Developed Countries where this
issue is mostly seen and installed within the society.
The gender pay gap is the average difference between a man’s and a
woman’s remuneration.
The unadjusted gender pay gap (GPG) is an important indicator used
within the European employment strategy (EES) to monitor imbalances in
wages between men and women. It is defined as the difference between
the average gross hourly earnings of men and women expressed as a
percentage of the average gross hourly earnings of men.
The lack of fairness or justice.
the role or behavior learned by a person as appropriate to their gender,
determined by the prevailing cultural norms.
A period of absence from work granted to a mother before and after the
birth of her child (some are as short as 6 weeks and others- a year).
A period of absence from work granted to a father after or shortly before
the birth of his child (the length varies but it is typically no longer than 2
This refers to pay transparency in the context of employeeled transparency, or employees being free to discuss their compensation
with one another without fear of retaliation.
Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has
the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or
exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on the basis of
equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in
the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field’ (United
Nations (1979)
A means of eliminating sex and race discrimination in the wage-setting
system. Women are still segregated into small number of jobs, such as
nurses, teachers or service workers, which are undervalued and continue
to be underpaid because of the gender of people who hold them.
A stereotype is a preconceived notion, especially about a group of people.
Many of these are racist, sexist or homophobic. It is a set idea that people
have about what someone or something is like, especially an idea that is
an unofficially acknowledged barrier to advancement in a profession,
especially affecting women and members of minorities.
The idea of political, social, and economic quality for all- men and
In the United States, on average, women in business school expect
to earn about $54,923 a year once they graduate and get a job,
compared with the $60,541 their male counterparts foresee for
themselves. That tells us that, according to expectations, women
price their skills at 90.72% of what men do. According to Universum’s
survey, the nation with the narrowest gap in expected business salary
is Malaysia, where women business students expect 96.51% of the
salary their male counterparts do. But before you pack your backs
and move to Malaysia, note that males in school there aspire to earn
$9,284 in U.S. dollars—per year! Still, the gender pay disparity—even
in salary expectations—is one that U.S. students should think about.
The U.S. gender gap was not narrow enough to crack the top three
best nations, which, with Malaysia on top, included Sweden and
Canada. In the U.S., a female student studying STEM subjects
expects to earn $56,703 per year. Compared to male STEM students
—who expect $64,385 when they hit the job market—that’s barely
more than 88% of male money expectations.
South Africa is ranked 19 in a new global index report on gender inequality released by the World Economic Forum (WEF). The report finds
that while South Africa has improved its share of women legislators, senior officials and managers, the gender wage gap in the country has
increased. A decade of slow progress towards better parity between the sexes has screeched to a halt, the WEF said on Thursday, warning
the global gender gap was now widening. In recent years, women have made significant progress towards equality in a number of areas
such as education and health, with the Nordic countries leading the fray. But the global trend now seems to have made a U-turn, especially
in workplaces, where full gender equality is not expected to materialize until 2234, WEF said in a report.“A decade of slow but steady
progress on improving parity between the sexes came to a halt in 2017, with the global gender gap widening for the first time since the
World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006,” it said. The Geneva-based organizations annual report
tracks the disparities between the sexes in four areas: education, health, economic opportunity and political empowerment. A year ago WEF
estimated that it would take 83 years to close the remaining gap. But since then women’s steady advances in the areas of education, health
and political representation have plateaued, and for the fourth year running, equality in the workplace has slipped further from view.
Thursday’s report said that at the current rate of progress, it would now take a full 100 years on average to achieve overall gender equality.
Although women the world over are paid 79 cents for every dollar paid to men, the situation is more grim in Pakistan, though, some educated women are
paid better. The gender pay gap in Pakistan is driven at least in part by the cumulative impact of many instances over the course of women’s lives, when
they are treated differently than their male peers. Parental influence is the key, as parents expect their sons, rather than their daughters, to work in science,
technology, engineering, or mathematics. Developed economies are rapidly narrowing the gender wage gap but in developing economies like Pakistan,
where informality is very high, it is an uphill task to reduce this gap. In formal
sector, it is mandatory to give minimum wage. Thus all start ups, whether women
or men, get the same minimum pay on their first job. However, as they gain
experience, the men with the similar level of experience, overtake the women in
salary and status. Unfortunately, the majority of jobs are provided by the informal
sector, where government regulations on minimum wage are not followed. In the
informal sector, even the men get much lower than minimum wage, while the
women are paid even less. It is no surprise that the majority of workers in
Pakistan are in the informal sector where timing can be flexible. Many jobs that
are performed by both women and men in developed countries are reserved only
for men in Pakistan. Job of a traveling salesman often goes to men because
women cannot travel outside due to social taboos. The gender bias is so extreme
in Pakistan that even in garment and knitwear industries most of the workers are
men. On the other hand, in India, Bangladesh and Vietnam, 90 percent of the
workers are women. Informal women workers exceed men also because they
perform the work outsourced to them from their home. This enables them to
perform their unpaid household responsibilities. These women are given very low
amount for their work. If one looks at the time housewives spend on paid and
unpaid work per hour, wages drop further. Even before they enter labour market,
women are perceived as inferior labour than men. Moreover, structural bias ensures that women get fewer resources for education, training and access to
capital. The formal workers dominated by men enjoy some social protection, but women workers, majority of whom are employed in the informal sectors,
do not have any legal or social protection. These include agricultural workers, rag-pickers, construction workers, home-based workers, domestic workers
or helps, street vendors or sellers, and part-time workers.
Korea has the largest gender wage gap among member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development according to the
latter’s report on gender initiative released Sunday to mark World Women’s Day (March 8). Korea’s average wage gap between permanent female and male
workers in 2009 was 38.9 percent, the largest among 27 member countries. The figure is 2.5 times higher than the OECD average of 15.8 percent and
considerably larger than Japans gap of 28.3 percent. The gender wage gap measures wage differences between men and women by comparing the
median income of regular female workers with that of male workers. The larger the gap, the larger the number of women whose incomes are smaller than
mens. Hungary had the lowest wage gap with 3.9 percent followed by New Zealand with 7.8 percent and Norway 8.7 percent. A large number of women
quitting their jobs for childcare are to blame for the large gender wage gap in Korea, according to experts. This reduces the number of high-income female
workers. In practice, the female employment rate for 20-somethings was 58.7 percent and the corresponding figure for those in their 30s was 53.7 percent
last year. The figure, however, was 64.9 percent for those in their 40s. This means that the majority of regular female workers stop working in their 30s due
to childbirth and childrearing, but return to work as temporary workers in their 40s. Koreas gender pay gap fell from 38.3 percent in 2005 to 37.8 percent
in 2007, but grew again to 38.8 percent in 2008. This is in contrast to the situations in most OECD member countries, with Japan’s figure falling from 32.8
percent in 2005 to 28.3 percent in 2009. Kim Yeong-ok, a researcher at the Korean Women’s Development Institute, said, Because small businesses were
hit hard by the 2008 global financial crisis, the gender pay gap has further widened. Koreas female employment rate ranked 32nd with 54.5 percent
among 40 countries surveyed in 2010. Ireland had the highest rate with 82.7 percent, followed by Sweden with 76.7 percent and Denmark 76.1 percent.
Iceland has become the first country in the world to make it illegal to pay men more than women. Under the legislation, companies and government
agencies with more than 25 employees will be required to obtain government certification for their equal-pay policies. Those failing to demonstrate pay
equality will face fines. “It’s a mechanism to ensure women and men are being paid equally,” Dagny Osk Aradottir Pind, a board member of the Icelandic
Women’s Rights Association, told Al Jazeera. “We have had legislation saying that pay should be equal for men and women for decades now but we still
have a pay gap.” The law came into effect on Monday, the first day of the new year. It was announced on International Women’s Day on 8 March last
year. The legislation was supported by Iceland’s centre-right coalition government, as well as the opposition, in the country’s parliament, where nearly 50
per cent of members are women. “I think that now people are starting to realize that this is a systematic problem that we have to tackle with new
methods,” Ms Aradottir Pind told Al Jazeera.She added: “Women have been talking about this for decades and I really feel that we have managed to raise
awareness, and we have managed to get to the point that people realize that the legislation we have had in place is not working, and we need to do
something more.” Iceland, which has a strong economy based on tourism and fisheries, has been ranked the best in the world for gender equality by
the World Economic Forum for nine years in a row. Iceland’s government has committed to eradicate the gender pay gap by 2022.
The European Union has gender equality as a founding principle, and has made great efforts to introduce women in various jobs that are related to
men. The wage gap has been reduced, and the EU has completely been involvement in this issue in order to finally close this gap. Many European
women’s life has improved due to the achievement of the EU, by introducing measures to help women develop in all aspects and by treating them with
equal rights.
United Nations Women works for the elimination of discrimination and segregation against women, and the recognition of their rights. This specializes
in achieving gender equality in all aspects, including in education and workplace. This organization invests in women’s economic empowerment, as
this gender is affected by poverty and exploitation too, apart from discrimination. The UN women relied on international commitments such as the
Beijing Platform for Action (1995) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979). The organization
focused more on segregated women from LEDCs, who lived in rural places, were migrants or illiterate.
Awareness-raising campaigns
Monitoring initiatives of the gender pay gap, or gender equality in employment in general
Tripartite initiatives triggered by the government on equal pay or gender equality in employment in general
Establishment/creation of specific bodies to address the gender pay gap, or gender equality in employment in general
Legislation on incentive-driven or mandatory equality plans at company level
Legislation on quota-systems in certain positions, such as in company boards
Education and training policies specifically aimed at women with a view to address occupational segregation (e.g. addressing
Fiscal policies or income support measures targeted on low-paid jobs where female employment is particularly high
Interventions on parental leave regulation to support female career development
Interventions on care services to support female career development
career choices of young women)
– •
Increasing female labour market participation and economic independence of women and men
Reducing the gender pay, earnings and pension gaps and thus fighting poverty among women
Promoting equality between women and men in decision-making
Combating gender-based violence and protecting and supporting victims

Promoting gender equality and women’s rights across the world –
• The launch of the Platform – which is part of a broader UN International Labour Organization (ILO) and UN Women Global Equal Pay Coalition,
• Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, December 18th, 1979.
• Action for Equality, Development and Peace, Beijing, China, September 1995
• Resolution concerning the Promotion of Gender Equality, Pay equity and Maternity Protection, International Labour Office Geneva, June 2004
• Women’s Economic Empowerment, January 2016
• Equal Pay Platform of Champion 14th March 2017 campaign launched to close the gender pay gap by the UN Women and International Labour
• Should women receive the same pay as men? Why or why not?
• When does the gender pay gap reporting duty come into force?
• Other than consent, what legal grounds will there be for processing personal data under
the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)?
• Does an employee made redundant while on maternity leave have any special rights?
• What is the living wage used by the Living Wage Foundation and how is it calculated?
• Do employers need to amend employees’ contracts to comply with the General Data
Protection Regulation (GDPR)?
• Can an employer terminate the contract of an employee on maternity leave?
• What data subject access rights will employees have under the General Data Protection
Regulation (GDPR)?
• Do employers have to publish an explanation of their gender pay gap figures?
• Does an employer have to pay holiday pay to its casual workers?

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