write MA Thesis on a topic ”Current Refugee Crisis IN EUROPE AND ITS IMPACT ON Social and Political Situation in GERMANY”

Question Description

The context, data, analysis, and conclusions of the students’ research are to be presented for assessment in a dissertation that should not exceed 20,000 words in length (excluding the bibliography and appendices) written in Harvard reference style.

The thesis should have a proper structure with a table of contents, literature review and references which related to the text and other parts as mentioned in ‘MA dissertation manual’ (file uploaded below) with a possibility to change after supervisor marks/comments.

You can find the example of the thesis uploaded bellow which was written and defended by the colleague from my college.

Time can be extended up to 50 days.

Please bid only if you are confident to write this thesis properly.

Master of Arts
in International Relations
Master of Sciences
in International Business Economics
A Guide for Students
(Updated in April 2015)
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
THE DISSERTATION ………………………………………………………………………………… 3
GETTING STARTED………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
DISSERTATION SUPERVISION ………………………………………………………………… 6
PREPARING THE DISSERTATION ……………………………………………………………..7
DISSERTATION FORMAT………………………………………………………………………… 10
EDITING AND REFERENCING ……………………………………………………………… 12
APPENDIX A: THESIS REPORT FORM …………………………………………………………………… 15
APPENDIX B: LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………. 19
APPENDIX C: TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………………………………………..22
APPENDIX D: STATEMENTS PAGE ………………………………………………………………………. 23
APPENDIX E: REFERENCE STYLE GUIDE ……………………………………………………………. 23
This guide is designed to assist both students and supervisors who participate in the
Master of Arts in International Relations and Master of Sciences in International
Business Economics programmes. It is important to emphasise that it is a guide only,
and that individual style should not be sacrificed. Programme regulations are intended
to help, and to reduce potential wastage of time and effort. However, the instructions
put forth in this guide should not replace direct consultation between students and their
The purpose of this manual is to establish the formal requirements and procedures for
preparing and writing the graduate dissertation, and to provide further relevant
information and advice. All administrative matters relating to the dissertation are the
responsibility of the relevant Programme Director who may be contacted with queries
about the dissertation.
room 14, floor IX, sector F; e-mail: k.lazarski@lazarski.edu.pl
• MScIBE Programme Director Olha Zadorozhna, Ph.D., room 265; phone no. 22
54 35 567; e-mail: olha.zadorozhna@lazarski.pl.
The Dissertation module constitutes Part II of MA in International Relations and MSc in
International Business Economics degrees and carries a credit rating of 60 CATS (20
ECTS). Students are only allowed to proceed on to the dissertation stage of the scheme
after they have passed Part I. The dissertation is an important component of the taught
programme. It is seen as a means of enabling students to apply the theory learned, both
substantive and methodological, to an in-depth specialised study. The module requires
independent thought and action, and should encourage the integration of the course
material with areas of individual expertise and interest.
The context, data, analysis and conclusions of the students’ research are to be presented
for assessment in a dissertation that should not exceed 20,000 words in length
(excluding the bibliography and appendices). Dissertation assessment will be based on
an agreed mark between the supervisor and two internal examiners (following the blind
marking procedure) and confirmed by an external examiner of Coventry University. The
pass mark for the dissertation is 40%, a distinction is awarded to any student who scores
70% or more in both Part I and Part II of the programme. Students with a Part I average
of 65%–69% will also be awarded a degree with distinction where (Part I average + Part
II average)/2=70% or more.
You need to select a closely defined topic for study, in which you can demonstrate the
application of theories, concepts and techniques that you have learned in your study of
other modules.
While all thesis proposals will be considered, the department reserves the right to
withhold approval if a proposal is considered unsatisfactory. Reasons for the rejection
of dissertation proposals might include: duplication of topics, insufficiency of published
literature of adequate standing, insufficiency of published data, the unavailability of a
member of staff with expertise appropriate to the proposal, or a proposal which is
unrelated or unsuitable to the degree programme.
One of the hardest aspects of self-directed research activity is to define exactly what you
will do. It is important to keep in mind that what is needed is not just a subject area but
also a specific line of inquiry. This may involve, for example, a specific issue for
review, or a particular hypothesis to be tested. However, in all cases there must be a
purpose beyond the mere collection of information. Furthermore, a good dissertation
must be analytical, not just descriptive, and you will need to evaluate literature and
empirical evidence, use reasoned argument, and work systematically towards a
When choosing a specific area of study, you should make sure that your topic:
1. deals with an issue of current major concern.
2. is sufficient in scope and depth to form the basis of a Master Dissertation.
3. is manageable, given time and resource constraints.
4. is relevant to the realm of your studies.
It is important to stress points 3 and 4, as many students fall into the trap of choosing a
topic that is too ambitious. Students frequently underestimate the time required for each
stage of the research process and choose objectives which are better suited for a Doctoral
Dissertation rather than a Master’s Dissertation. This should be avoided.
Gill and Johnson (1991) include the following in their list of the characteristics of a good
research topic:
1. Access – will you be able to obtain the data required for the research? Will you
have access to key people, documents, etc.?
2. Achievability – can the work be completed in the time allocated for the
dissertation? This may refer more to the timing of required information than to the
total amount of work involved.
3. Symmetry of potential outcomes – will the research be of value regardless of the
4. Student capability – students should choose a topic that suits their own analytical
skills. This may seem obvious, but there are examples of students choosing topics
which do not play to their strengths.
5. Value and scope of the research – to quote Gill and Johnson: ‘There are several
reasons why the value of the research should be considered when topics are
selected. Both students and supervisors are likely to be more highly motivated if
the work has obvious value and examiners, too, are likely to be more interested and aware higher marks if the work is clearly making a contribution to the solution
of a significant problem’.
In order to ensure that you do not embark on work which is unnecessary or unlikely to lead
to successful completion, it is VITAL THAT YOU KEEP YOUR SUPERVISOR
There is no single model to follow when writing a dissertation. However, it is sometimes
helpful to look at successful dissertation copies which are available in the main library or
from staff in the department. The main point to remember is that you need to demonstrate
a good understanding of the principles of research-based academic inquiry, while
exploring a theme which will contribute to what is known already in their chosen area of
Attributes of a good dissertation include (modified from the advice given at the University
of Bath, School of Management):
1. A careful selection of a problem/issue which is relevant to your sphere of interest.
2. A clear definition of the problems/issues to be investigated.
3. A clear statement of aims.
4. An appropriate literature review.
5. An appropriate research design to investigate the specified problem area including
an awareness of alternative approaches and a defence of the chosen method.
6. A consistent and careful implementation of the adopted methodology.
7. Where applicable, the selection of appropriate data.
8. A systematic, objective and efficient analysis of the collected data.
9. The drawing of relevant conclusions from data analysis. Conclusions should be
supported by the data, and should be compared and contrasted with the findings of
previous studies and put into the context of existing literature.
10. A demonstration that you have a good grasp and understanding of the relevant
theory and have integrated it into the dissertation.
11. A demonstration of originality and initiative in pursuing the objectives of the study.
1. A consistent outline of the material and logical flow of arguments.
2. Inclusion or reference to all material and evidence supporting the conclusions. An
appropriate collection of appendices.
Assessment Criteria
In general, the dissertation is assessed by the following criteria:
1. Originality.
2. A clear definition of the issue under investigation and a clear statement of the aims
of the study.
3. An understanding and use of an appropriate research methodology indicating skills
in data collection and analysis.
4. The extent to which all of the above result in a set of conclusions that are consistent
with the research.
5. The setting out of clear recommendations for action, adoption or otherwise.
MA / MSc Seminar
Before selecting the topic you must first choose your dissertation supervisor (no later
than the end of November), and then, with the supervisor’s advice, choose the subject of
study. Prior to contacting your potential supervisors, you should conduct preliminary
research regarding their topic, so that your consultations with the supervisor are fruitful
and productive.
While deciding on the choice of the supervisor, you may refer to the CVs of LU
academic staff included in your Student Handbook.
Students will begin working regularly with their supervisors in the sixth semester,
during the MA/MSc Seminar. It must be stressed however that the supervisor will not
do the work for their pupils! The onus is on students to make their own decisions about
what goes into their dissertation, and that includes deciding whether to accept or reject
suggestions made by the supervisor.
The Student / Supervisor Relationship
Supervisors and students are expected to form an agreement based on a ‘partnership’, with
both parties providing input and having responsibilities. In this case the term ‘contract’ with
its all connotations of terms and conditions, and its remedies for non-performance or
compliance, is avoided. The ideal relationship should be a co-operative one with benefits
arising for both student and supervisor.
Supervisors are expected to provide guidance as to structure, organisation and presentation
of the work, and students are expected to undertake the appropriate research and discovery,
employing an agreed approach and methodology.
At an early stage, the supervisor and student should meet and agree on an approach to the
management of the dissertation. Working together they should determine answers to
questions such as the following:
• where will meetings take place?
• what are the arrangements for internal and external communications?
Formal Supervision Procedure
To facilitate an effective supervision process, there is a formalised procedure whereby
students are expected to make appointments with their supervisor, and show evidence of
progress at each meeting. When arranging meeting times, you should suggest suitable
dates via email or in person, and you are expected to keep the appointments that they
have made.
You are supposed to keep your Dissertation Report Form (see Appendix A) that
records each meeting with your supervisors. You must bring this record to every
meeting and after each supervision return it to the English-language Studies
Registrar for the Programme Director’s further verification of progress. Keeping a
clear record of meetings is an essential element of the dissertation process. Supervisors,
subject to mutual agreement, might also see their pupils during other times in addition
to, but not instead of, their formally scheduled meetings.
Supervision time will be limited to 10 meetings per academic year. This figure may change
at the discretion of the Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Management.
Work Plan
Clearly it will not be possible at the outset to determine a comprehensive plan of work as
this will develop and evolve as the work progresses. Nevertheless, it is desirable that
discussions between students and their supervisors take place at an early stage with the
view of determining an agreed work schedule, which can be used to monitor student
progress. A dissertation timetable is available on zasoby.lazarski.pl. However, you should
treat this timetable as a guide, there are no absolutes in this business. Nevertheless,
deadlines for submission are absolute.
Roles and Responsibilities of the Supervisor and the Student
Supervisors should ensure that:
• adequate time is available for supervision and encouragement;
• the student fully comprehends the complexity of the proposed task;
• the student is focusing on the work in the intended direction;
• the student has access to primary research materials.
The supervisor acts as a mentor and guide to the student, and should take a professional
interest in the work of the student.
The student will:
• ensure that an appropriate amount of time and effort is applied to the dissertation;
• be receptive to counsel from the supervisor;
• properly acknowledge text, material and ideas created by others;
• meet all regulations relating to the work;
• communicate any problems likely to prejudice the quality or timeliness of the work
to the supervisor as and when such problems arise.
Word Processing Facilities
Windows-based software is available in the Library, computer laboratories and in the
University halls. Most of the machines have electronic mail facilities and Internet
Windows-based printing facilities are accessible in the room of the Students’ Union and
are free of charge. In the event of difficulties with the above, you should contact the IT
Department at it@lazarski.edu.pl.
Writing the Dissertation
You should try at an early stage to envisage the final shape of your dissertation, i.e. the
whole as the sum of its parts, including the balance between the chapters and the way
that each chapter links to the next. There is no single ideal dissertation structure, and
much will depend on the topic chosen, but there are some points of advice which have
general application.
A dissertation should be systematic in approach, and clear in exposition. Having
decided what issues or questions are going to be studied, you should choose your
methods of examination. You should ask yourself: ‘How can I best explain my line of
enquiry, and what will be the logical steps by which I can build up to a conclusion?’.
You may use theory to identify what you expect to happen, then check against evidence
of what actually happened to identify conformity with, or divergence from, the theory,
and then offer interpretation. Alternatively, you may review the existing literature
relating to your topic and identify the extent of common ground or differences of
opinion, and then collect and evaluate information to reflect on how the general debate
helps understand the case in question. These are examples of methodical research
design, and they will be explained in further detail, along with other methods, in the
Research Methods course. However, the important thing to remember is that you should
avoid having a disorganised, rambling, series of points of information that fills up pages
but does not lead anywhere.
Having a good research design with a definite layout of chapters, each corresponding to
a logical next step in a progressive investigation, is necessary for the reader to
understand what is written in the dissertation. Your should keep in mind that even if
something is clear in your own head, a lack of logical expression will leave the reader
unsure or confused about your argument.
In that regard, you must also be careful to avoid ambiguity and to be precise. You
should support assertions with evidence or reasoned argument. You should add
appropriate qualifications to general statements. And you should be thorough and well
organised in their thinking, conveying your ideas through the judicious use of language
as well as charts, tables, and graphs if necessary. Although methodology is of central
importance, the dissertation also requires communication and presentation skills.
In preparing a dissertation it is obviously useful to draw from earlier work in the same
topic area (properly acknowledged – see below). Most theses include a literature review,
which is not an end in itself but rather a basis from which to consider how best to move
forward to deal with the task at hand. You should select what is relevant and useful, and
adapt the literature to suit. Appendix B provides some practical suggestions on how to
conduct a literature review.
In writing your dissertation, you learn the skills by which academics advance
knowledge and understanding. A strict requirement here is for you to always
acknowledge what is taken from others, and not to present borrowed ideas as your
own. In this respect, the bibliography of consulted references is an important part of any
dissertation. It is also important to quote data sources. You should start a bibliography
at an early stage of your work, and update it regularly as you progress. While reading
through research materials, it is also useful to keep a record of important page numbers
for later reference – all quotations need specific attribution. The recommended style of
presentation is covered in a later section of this document.
The dissertation should be within the prescribed length limits, i.e. 20,000 words
(excluding bibliography and appendices). Part of this exercise is to experience the
discipline of writing within stated confines, necessitating that you make judgements
about what is relevant and important.
The early stages of dissertation work involve searching for material, reading, planning:
these are all inputs. What matters ultimately is the output. The transition from
preparation to production can be traumatic! It is suggested that you do not write the
introduction first, but rather leave it until you know exactly what you are introducing. A
good approach is to start with substantive chapters of the dissertation that review the
literature first, or introduce relevant theory, or present the evidence. The next step is to
move on to chapters that set up the methodology, undertake the analysis, and provide
interpretation. Finally, the last stage is to write the introduction and conclusion.
Moreover, towards the end the dissertation writing process it is a good idea to discuss
with your supervisors the exact wording of your dissertation title. A dissertation usually
evolves over time and the focus can move slightly away from what was initially
envisaged. This is normal. Ultimately, you should choose a title that is brief and which
accurately describes what your dissertation is all about.
Two bound copies of the completed dissertation, preapproved by the dissertation
supervisor must be submitted to the English-language Studies Registrar at the end of the
sixth semester (the exact date is specified each year, see Dissertation Timetable
available on zasoby.lazarski.pl). Late submission will result in capping your final
mark at 40% and may result in delaying graduation until the fall, or even the next
academic year with the obligation to repeat the seminar course worth 20 ECTS
Each dissertation is marked by two internal examiners independently (blind marking).
The agreed grade of the supervisor and the internal markers is also subject to final
approval by the external examiner of Coventry University.
In assessing the dissertation, markers will consider such factors as the difficulty of the
subject matter, the use of sources, the quality of ideas expressed, the quality of analysis,
the relevance of the material to the argument, and the general presentation of the study.
The standard of English expression and spelling will also be taken into account. The
dissertation is evaluated as a completed entity, with markers exercising their
professional judgement about overall quality.
After the dissertation is marked, all Lazarski University students (validated and nonvalidated) must pass a dissertation defence examination before the Dissertation Board
which consists of the supervisor, the internal examiners, the Dean of the Faculty, or the
Programme Director acting on his/her behalf. This does not relate to students applying
for Coventry University degree only (i.e. validated students who do not intend to obtain
Lazarski University degree).
Plagiarism occurs when you present the work of others as if it were your own. This is a
serious academic offence which necessitates disciplinary action. Students found guilty
of presenting a wholly or substantially plagiarised dissertation will be expelled from the
University without a degree.
Unfair practice can take many forms. With the dissertation it is expected that students
will draw from the work of others, but at every instance this must be acknowledged
with a reference to the author. Direct quotations of other people’s words must be placed
in quotation marks (or for longer quotes, indented block quotations), and there must be
an exact reference to the source location. A recommended style of referencing is
presented below. A dissertation which is excessively dependent on referenced material
from other sources, without much individual input from the student, is not guilty of an
offence but will be marked down for poor scholarship. Unacknowledged copying of
work that has been done by another person is unacceptable. The falsification or
fabrication of data or results is also a form of objectionable practice.
The above is of course not an exhaustive list of forms of misconduct in research. Any
indication of malpractice of any kind in a dissertation will lead to an enquiry and results
may be withheld until that is completed. In cases of proven significant malpractice a
zero mark is recorded and the student is then subject to disciplinary proceedings.
Lazarski University requires that each student sign a statement of originality and
include it in their dissertation.
Although there is no set style for writing a thesis, every dissertation should have the
following components in the subsequent order: a title page, a statement of originality,
acknowledgements (if any), an abstract, a table of contents, a list of tables and figures
(if any), a list of abbreviations (if any), an introductory chapter, substantive chapters, a
concluding chapter, a bibliography, and appendices (if any). The format of these
components are as follows:
Title Page
The precise title of the thesis (in English and in Polish) is to be typed in capital letters
on the first page inside the binding. Below this comes the title of the degree for which
the thesis is submitted, the students’ name, the name of the supervisor, and the year of
presentation. There should also be no page number on the title page (see Appendix C).
Statement of Originality
The second page the thesis should have the statements of originality (Appendix D)
along with the student’s written signature (in blue ink), and date (also in blue ink). The
page containing the statement of originality should not include any page numbers.
Acknowledgements (if any)
If you choose to acknowledge the help or input of anyone who has aided you during the
writing of the thesis, then you may do so on the third page of the dissertation titled
‘Acknowledgements’. This page should not include any page numbers.
An abstract or synopsis of about 300-400 words must be given on the fourth page of the
thesis (or third page if there are no acknowledgements). This is for the benefit of a
potential user of the thesis who, having been attracted by the title, wants a brief outline
of the method of approach, the coverage and the results in order to know whether it is
relevant to their own work. This page should not include any page numbers.
Table of Contents
The next page of the thesis should be the ‘Table of Contents’, which lists all of the
contents of the thesis and their page numbers, as well as the number and title of each
chapter and the number of the page on which each chapter begins. The Table of
Contents page itself should not have a page number.
List of Tables and Figures (if any)
Following the Table of Contents page, you should include a list of any tables or figures
that appear in the thesis (along with the page numbers where they can be found in the
thesis). The ‘List of Tables and Figures’ page should be the first page in the thesis
which will be numbered, and this number ought to correspond to the order in which it
appears in the thesis (so if the student dedicated one page for Acknowledgements and
one page for the Table of Contents, then the ‘List of Tables and Figures’ page should be
numbered 6). Every page in the thesis from this point forward ought to have a page
Key to Abbreviations (if any)
If the thesis features abbreviations, then these should to be listed in a separate ‘Key of
Abbreviations’ section.
Introductory Chapter
This chapter will spell out the main issues addressed in the thesis and might, for
example, establish the context of the thesis and provide some background to the issues
examined. This may take the form of a statement of a hypothesis, or of a problem, and a
general discussion of the methodology and procedures used in the study, as well as the
sequence in which these are discussed in subsequent chapters.
Substantive Chapters
Each major theme ought to be presented in a separate chapter, which should be clearly
supported by relevant literature, references, and other evidence as appropriate. Details
of the reference system are given below. Each chapter should begin on a new page and
the chapter heading should be a concise description of the contents of the chapter.
9.10 Summary and Conclusions
The final chapter will summarise the entire study and state the conclusions reached and
their implications, as well as any recommendations which may come out of the thesis.
As this is often the focal point of the thesis, you are advised to give this chapter
particular attention.
9.11 Bibliography
The bibliography should include a list of all the sources referenced in the text of thesis.
Guidelines for the proper referencing of sources are provided below. The content of the
bibliography is not taken into consideration for the final word count of the thesis.
9.12 Appendices
Appendices may include source documents, charts, tables, pictures, or other materials
which might enhance the reader’s understanding of the subject matter tackled in the
thesis. Each new piece of material should have its own appendix. The content of the
appendices is not taken into consideration for the final word count of the thesis.
10.1 Font and Line Spacing
The thesis text should be double spaced, and the text ought to be in Times New Roman
Font, size 12. A larger size and different font style may be used for chapter headings at
the student’s discretion.
The text of the thesis should also be ‘justified’, and the first line of each new paragraph
must begin with an indentation. However, the first line at the beginning of each chapter
or sub-chapter should not be indented (see example below).
10.2 Page Numbers
All pages in the thesis must have page numbers except for the title page, statement of
originality, acknowledgements (if any), abstract, and the table of contents. Page
numbers must be written at the bottom of each page and should be centred.
10.3 Referencing System
Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and
ideas that you have used in your document. It is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify
quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locate the cited
author’s work. There are many styles which follow the author-date convention,
including the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of
Style. For the BA Thesis at Lazarski University, the preferred referencing system is the
‘Harvard Style’.
For information on the Harvard Reference Style please refer to Appendix E and/or the
Harvard Reference Style Quick Guide available on zasoby.lazarski.pl.
10.4 Use of Italics in Text
Italics are used to distinguish certain words from others within the text. Below are
some basic rules for when to use italics while writing.
Generally, italics are used for the titles of things that can stand by themselves. Thus, the
titles of novels and journals must be differentiated from, say, and the titles of poems,
short stories, articles, and episodes (for television shows). The titles of these shorter
pieces would be surrounded with double quotation marks.
In writing the titles of newspapers, ‘the’ is not italicized, even when it is part of the title
(the New York Times), and the same goes for name of the city in which the newspaper is
published unless that name is part of the title: the Hartford Courant, but the London
10.5 Use of Footnotes and Endnotes
The use of endnotes is discouraged in the BA Thesis. However, footnotes at the bottom
of pages may be used for clarifying or diversionary comments. Neither endnotes nor
footnotes should be used for referencing, as the preferred Harvard Style mentioned
above employs a parenthetical system. Footnotes should be single-spaced.
10.6 Quoting and Paraphrasing
Please refer to Appendix F for advice that students should follow when paraphrasing
and quoting different authors in their thesis.
10.7 Printing and Binding
Two copies of the BA Thesis must be submitted to the English-language Studies
Registrar before the specified due date. The thesis must be bound in a dark blue
The thesis must be printed one-sided, on quality A4 paper. The margins of the pages
should be 2.5cm on all sides.
Student Name: ……………………………………………
Programme: ……………………………………………
Supervisor: ……………………………………………
Working Title of Dissertation: ………………………………………………………………..
Record of Meetings with Student:
Date of Meeting 1:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 2:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 3:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 4:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 5:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 6:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 7:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 8:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 9:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
Date of Meeting 10:
Discussion of:
Progress: (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory)
(Additional sheets for other meetings to be appended as necessary)
Reasons for Reporting of Unsatisfactory Progress:
Date(s) Programme Director Informed of Unsatisfactory Progress:
Subsequent Action Taken:
End of Dissertation Report:
Date of dissertation submission for examination:
Was a draft of the dissertation submitted for comments prior to submission: Yes/No*
If “No” estimate % of dissertation seen in draft form prior to submission:
I confirm that the above is a true record of the supervision of this dissertation.
Signed (Student):………………………………………………………………
Signed (Supervisor):………………………………………………………….
Note: The Dissertation Report Form is to be kept in the Students Record File
*delete as inappropriate
In order to find out what research other people have done on your chosen topic, you will
need to undertake a literature search. Your review of the literature will then act as a
background against which you can carry out and report your own research. As Jankowicz
points out (1991, p. 116)
Knowledge doesn’t exist in a vacuum, and your work only has value in relation to
other people’s. Your work and your findings will be significant only to the extent
that they’re the same as, or different from, other people’s work and findings.
What is needed is a ‘critical review which demonstrates some awareness of the current
state of knowledge on the subject, its limitations, and how the proposed research aims to
add to what is known’ (Gill and Johnson, 1991, p.21).
What follows are some practical suggestions on how to undertake an effective literature
Start off by referring to some books and articles on the topic of your research. Your
supervisor should be able to advise you. From these, by following up the
references, you will be able to trace more specific publications, which will in turn
guide you to others, and so on. You probably need to use the inter-library loan
system because it is unlikely that the average academic library will have all the
relevant books and articles.
If you are unable to trace any previous research on your topic, try broadening your
search. For example, if you are researching the use of staff appraisal systems in
voluntary organisations and you cannot find any previous research on it, look at
staff appraisal generally. You will soon find that the literature is vast! It then
becomes a case of narrowing down to some aspect of staff appraisal that is relevant
to your research question.
When you are writing up your literature review, you will probably need to divide it
into sections in order to make the review manageable and reader friendly. What
sections you will have will very much depend on what you find in the literature.
As a general rule, when writing up the review, deal with the more general material
first and then gradually narrow down towards your particular research question.

Another rule of thumb is to deal with the literature in chronological order so that
the reader can see how the research activity of others has developed over the
Sometimes you will find that these rules of thumb (paragraphs 4 and 5) conflict
with each other. If so, you will need to make a judgement about what makes most
sense in the context of your particular research.
Remember that you are expected to carry out a critical review of the literature. It is
not enough simply to list and describe what has been done by researchers. You
need to summarise and compare the pieces of research to see how they differ (in
their approaches, research methods, and findings) and to see whether any common
themes emerge. Aim for what Gill and Johnson (1991) call an ‘insightful
evaluation’ of the literature (p.21).
You should then use the results of the review as a backdrop to your own research.
The review can help you to plan parts of your own research, and you should use
the key ideas from the review in your own discussion of your results; e.g. how your
findings fit in with the previous research.
Opinions about how long a literature review should be vary greatly. Literature
reviews of 15% – 25% of the total word count of the thesis are not uncommon.
You need to be fastidious in the way you keep details of the publications consulted.
Some people advocate the use of index cards (one for each publication) with a
summary of the research and enough detail to enable you to cite the work correctly
in ‘References’ at the end of your thesis (e.g. title, and title of journal where
relevant), author, date, of publication, publisher, page numbers, and a brief note on
the content of the article or book in question). Alternatively, you can use a suitable
computer database for keeping your records of the publications consulted.
You should aim to complete a reasonably comprehensive literature review before
carrying out the substantive part of your own research; this is because what you
find out in the literature review can help you to refine your research question and
your research method.
In one sense you will not be able to achieve a complete review before your own
data collection because research will continue to be published during the period of
your own research; but you should aim to complete most of the review as
as possible (otherwise you might find, half way through your data collection, that
someone else has already done it).
The sources which you should search include books, articles, theses and thesiss,
government reports research papers, conference papers, abstracts and reviews,
library catalogues and on-line databases. Librarians and your supervisor should
be able to offer useful guidance. Many professional bodies have libraries which
might be relevant to your particular topic.
Further reading on literature reviews
Bell (1987) chapters 3 and 4, including pp 20 – 1; an extract from a literature review as an
illustration. Gill and Johnson (1991) pp. 21 – 22. Jankowicz (1991) chapter 8.
Bell, J., (1987). Doing Your Research Project. Open University Press.
Gill, J. and Johnson, P., (1991). Research Methods for Manager. Paul Chapman.
Jankowicz, A., (1991). Business Research Projects for Students. Chapman and Hall.
Faculty of Economics and Management
Full Polish title of the thesis
Programme of studies
(Economics/International Relations)
Student Enrollment No
Bachelor/Master Thesis
Supervisor’s name
Warsaw 2015
This work has not previously been accepted in substance for any degree and is not being concurrently
submitted in candidature for any degree.
I, being aware of all the applicable consequences, declare that the submitted dissertation, titled in
English and Polish, is the result of my own work and research.
Additionally, I declare that the dissertation does not infringe on any copyrights in accordance with
the act
on copyright and neighboring rights, nor does it infringe on any personal rights as protected by civil
I also declare that the submitted work does not contain data and information obtained by me in a
forbidden manner.
I also confirm that the submitted dissertation is identical with the attached electronic version of it.
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of book – family name and initials Year of publication. Title of book – italicized,
Edition, Place of publication, Publisher.
Single author
2 authors
3 authors
Example of in-text citation
Bibliography example
Sophisticated searching techniques
are important in finding information
(Berkman 1994)
Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that

Berkman (1994, pp. 30-35) agrees
that …
… from an engineering perspective
(Cengel & Boles 1994)
Cengel and Boles (1994) found …
… as previously demonstrated (Reid,
Parsons & Green 1989)
Berkman, Robert, 1994. Find It fast:
how to uncover expert information on
any subject. New York:
4 or more
… neck pain caused by whiplash
(Jull et al. 2008).
Jull et al. (2008) have argued …
No author
… already mentioned (Be, know, do:
leadership the Army way 2004).
In Be, know, do: leadership the Army
way (2004) there is an interesting
example …
… geology of Queensland’s national
parks (Willmott 2004, 2006).
works by the
same author
Cengel, Y. A., and Boles, M. A.,
1994. Thermodynamics: an
engineering approach, 2nd ed.
London: McGraw Hill.
Reid, D. H., Parsons, M. B. & Green,
C. W., 1989. Staff management in
human services: behavioral research
and application. Springfield: Charles
C. Thomas.
Jull, G., Sterling, M., Fallah, D.,
Treleaven, J. & O’Leary, S., 2008.
Whiplash headache and neck pain:
research-based directions for physical
therapies. Edinburgh: Churchill
Be, know, do: leadership the Army
way, 2004. San Francisco: JosseyBass.
Insert alphabetically into the
Willmott, W. F., 2004. Rocks and
landscapes of the national parks of
southern Queensland. Brisbane:
Geological Society of Australia,
Queensland Division.
Willmott, W. F., 2006. Rocks and
landscapes of the national parks of
central Queensland, Brisbane:
Geological Society of Australia,
Queensland Division.
Order chronologically from in the
reference list.
works by the
same author,
published in
the same
Two or more
works by
… geographically speaking
(Dawkins 1996a, 1996b)
… rock formations (Dawkins 1996;
Willmott 2004)
Book by an
or institution
… in the case of an institution
(Australian Government Publishing
Service 1987)
… the meaning of educational
research (Pring 2004)
Edited book
… some findings (Sjostrand 1993)
… optics defined (Pike & Sarkar
Book Series
In defining permutation groups
Bhattacharjee (1998) …
Dawkins, R., 1996a. Climbing Mount
Improbable. London: Viking.
Dawkins, R., 1996b. River out of Eden.
London: Phoenix.
Order alphabetically by title in the
reference list.
Dawkins, R., 1996. Climbing Mount
Improbable. London: Viking.
Willmott, W. F., 2004. Rocks and
landscapes of the national parks of
southern Queensland. Brisbane:
Geological Society of Australia,
Queensland Division.
Australian Government Publishing
Service, 1987. Commonwealth printing
and publishing manual, 2nd ed.
Canberra: A.G.P.S.
Pring, Robert, 2004. Philosophy of
educational research, 2nd ed. London:
Continuum, London.
The edition statement is placed after
the title of the work. This is not
necessary for a first edition.
Sjostrand, S. (ed.), 1993. Institutional
change: theory and empirical findings.
N.Y.: Harper.
Pike, E. R. & Sarkar, S. (eds.), 1986,
Frontiers in quantum optics. Bristol:
Adam Hilger.
Bhattacharjee, M., 1998. Notes of
infinite permutation groups, Lecture
notes in mathematics no. 1698. New
York: Springer.
Chapter in a book
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials Year of publication. ‘Title of chapter –
in single quotation marks’, in Editor(s) of book (eds), Title of book – italicized, Edition.
Place of publication, Publisher, Page numbers.
Chapter in an
edited book
Example of in-text citation
Bernstein (1995) explained
intelligent traffic flows.
Bibliography example
Bernstein, D., 1995. ‘Transportation
planning’, in W. F. Chen (ed.), The
civil engineering handbook. Boca
Raton: CRC Press, pp. 231-61.
Bernstein, Darel, 1995.
‘Transportation planning’, in W. F.
Chen (ed.), The civil engineering
handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press,
pp. 231-61.
Conference paper
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of paper – family name and initials Year of publication. ‘Title of paper – in
single quotation marks’, Title of published proceedings which may include place held
and date(s) – italicized. Publisher, Place of Publication, Page number(s), (viewed date
in-full, URL – if accessed electronically).
Example of in-text citation
Bourassa (1999) emphasized …
… estimating partner change
(Bowden and Fairley 1996)
Bibliography example
Bourassa, S., 1999. ‘Effects of child
care on young children’, Proceedings
of the third annual meeting of the
International Society for Child
Psychology. Atlanta, Georgia:
International Society for Child
Psychology, pp. 44-46.
Bowden, F. J. & Fairley, C. K., 1996.
‘Endemic STDs in the Northern
Territory: estimations of effective
rates of partner change’. Paper
presented to the scientific meeting of
the Royal Australian College of
Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.
Journal Article
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials Year of publication. ‘Title of
journal article – in single quotation marks’, Title of journal – italicised, Volume, Issue
or number, Page number(s), (viewed date in-full, URL – if accessed electronically).
article with
without page
Example of in-text citation
Huffman (1996) expanded on the
theory …
… uses for whey protein (Huffman
… changes in resource management
(Daniel 2009)
… the discipline of art history
(Donahue-Wallace & Chanda 2005)
Bibliography example
Huffman, L. M., 1996. ‘Processing
whey protein for use as a food
ingredient’. Food Technology, vol. 50,
no. 2, pp. 49-52; [or Food Technology,
50, 2: 49-52].
Daniel, T. T., 2009. ‘Learning from
simpler times’. Risk Management, vol.
56, no. 1: 40-44, viewed 30 January
2009, .
For an article retrieved from a
database, it is sufficient to give the
URL of the database site.
Donahue-Wallace, K. & Chanda, J.,
2005. ‘A case study in integrating the
best practices of face-to-face art
history and online teaching’.
Interactive Multimedia Electronic
Journal of Computer-Enhanced
Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30
January 2009,
Elements of the citation
Author of thesis – family name and initials, Year of preparation of thesis. ‘Title of thesis – in
single quotation marks’, Award, Location of institution, Institution issuing degree.
Example of in-text citation
Bibliography example
Exelby (1997) described the process

… processing gold (Exelby 1997)
Exelby, James, 1997. ‘Aspects of gold
and mineral liberation’. PhD thesis,
Honolulu: Hawaii University.
The title is not italicized and is
placed in quotation marks.
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of report – (person or organization) Year of Publication, Title of report italicized, Report number (if available), Publisher/ Institution, Place of publication:
(viewed date in-full, URL – if accessed electronically).
Print report
Example of in-text citation
… in Queensland waterways
(Mortimer & Cox 1999)
… young children’s schooling
(Rathbun, West & Hausken 2003)
Bibliography example
Mortimer, M. & Cox, M., 1999.
Contaminants in mud crabs and
sediments from the Maroochy River.
Environment technical report no. 25.
Brisbane: Queensland Department of
the Environment.
Rathbun, A. H., West, J. & Hausken,
E. G., 2003. Young children’s access to
computers in the home and at school in
1999 and 2000, NCES-2003-036.
Washington, DC.: National Center for
Education Statistics, viewed 4
November 2003,
Newspaper and magazine article
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of article – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of article – in
single quotation marks’, Title of newspaper – italicized, Day month, Page number(s).
Example of in-text citation
Bibliography example
… as seen in the move to privatise the
railway (Simpson 1997)
article (web)
… government has been blamed for
the water shortage (Porteous 2007).
Simpson, L., 1997. ‘Tasmania’s
railway goes private’. Australian
Financial Review, 13 October, p. 10.
Porteous, C., 2007. ‘Rudd blamed for
drought’. Courier Mail, 15 August, p.
17, viewed 27 February 2009,
For an article retrieved from a
database, it is sufficient to give the
URL of the database site.
Web page
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of page – (person or organization), Year (page created or revised), Title of
page – italicized, description of document (if applicable), name of the sponsor of the
page (if applicable), viewed date-in-full, URL.
Web page
with author
Example of in-text citation
… this agreement (Albanese 2009)
Web page
corporate or
al author
… in this subject guide (University
of Queensland Library 2009)
Web page
with no date
… it has been argued that emotional
intelligence is a combination of
competencies (Bliss n.d.)
Bibliography example
Albanese, A., 2009. Fairer
compensation for air travellers. Media
release, 29 January, Minister for
Infrastructure, Transport, Regional
Development and Local Government,
viewed 30 January 2009,
University of Queensland Library,
2009. Mechanical engineering subject
guide.University of Queensland
Library, viewed 6 February 2009,
Bliss, S., n.d.. The effect of emotional
intelligence on a modern
organizational leader’s ability to make
effective decisions, viewed 10
February 2008,
Elements of the citation
Issuing body Year of publication, Title of map – italicized, Series (if available), Place of
publication, Publisher.
Example of in-text citation
Bibliography example
… reading this map (Department of
Mines and Energy, Queensland
Department of Mines and Energy,
Queensland, 1996. Dotswood,
Australia 1:100 000 geological series,
sheet 8158, Queensland, Brisbane,
Department of Mines and Energy.
Personal communication
Elements of the citation
Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented
in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of References.
Example of in-text citation
When interviewed on 15 June 1995,
Dr Peter Jones explained that …
This was later verbally confirmed (P
Jones 1995, pers. comm., 15 June).
Bibliography example
Do not include in the bibliography
The guidelines are adopted from a writing guide prepared by the University of
How to Paraphrase
• When reading a passage, try first to understand it as a whole, rather than
pausing to write down specific ideas or phrases.
• Be selective. You usually do not need to paraphrase an entire passage; instead,
choose and summarize the material that helps you make a point in your thesis.
• Think of what ‘your own words’ would be if you were telling someone who’s
unfamiliar with your subject (your mother, your brother, a friend) what the
original source said.
• Remember that you can use direct quotations of phrases from the original
within your paraphrase, and that you do not need to change or put quotation
marks around shared language.
Methods of Paraphrasing
A. Look away from the source, then write.
Read the text you want to paraphrase several times—until you feel that you
understand it and can use your own words to restate it to someone else. Then,
look away from the original and rewrite the text in your own words.
B. Take notes.
Take abbreviated notes, set the notes aside, then paraphrase from the notes a day
or so later, or when you draft.
C. While looking at the source, first change the structure, then the words.
For example, consider the following passage from Love and Toil (a book on
motherhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the author, Ellen Ross,
puts forth one of her major arguments:
Love and Toil maintains that family survival was the mother’s main
charge among the large majority of London’s population who were poor
or working class; the emotional and intellectual nurture of her child or
children and even their actual comfort were forced into the background.
To mother was to work for and organize household subsistence. (p. 9)
1. Change the structure

Begin by starting at a different place in the passage and/or sentence(s),
basing your choice on the focus of your paper. This will lead naturally to
some changes in wording. Some places you might start in the passage above
are ‘The mother’s main charge,’ ‘Among the … poor or working class,’
‘Working for and organizing household subsistence,’ or ‘The emotional and
intellectual nurture.’ Or you could begin with one of the people the passage
is about: ‘Mothers,’ ‘A mother,’ ‘Children,’ ‘A child.’ Focusing on specific
people rather than abstractions will make your paraphrase more readable.

At this stage, you might also break up long sentences, combine short ones,
expand phrases for clarity, or shorten them for conciseness, or you might do
this in an additional step. In this process, you will naturally eliminate some
words and change others.
Here is one of the many ways you might get started with a paraphrase of the
passage above by changing its structure. In this case, the focus of the paper is the
effect of economic status on children at the turn of the century, so the writer
begins with children:
Children of the poor at the turn of the century received little if any
emotional or intellectual nurturing from their mothers, whose main
charge was family survival. Working for and organizing household
subsistence were what defined mothering. Next to this, even the
children’s basic comfort was forced into the background (Ross, 1995).
Now you have succeeded in changing the structure, but the passage still contains
many direct quotations, so you need to go on to the second step:
2. Change the words

use synonyms or a phrase that expresses the same meaning.
leave shared language unchanged.
It is important to start by changing the structure, not the words, but you might
find that as you change the words, you see ways to change the structure further.
The final paraphrase might look like this:
According to Ross (1993), poor children at the turn of the century
received little mothering in our sense of the term. Mothering was defined
by economic status, and among the poor, a mother’s foremost
responsibility was not to stimulate her children’s minds or foster their
emotional growth but to provide food and shelter to meet the basic
requirements for physical survival. Given the magnitude of this task,
children were deprived of even the ‘actual comfort’ (p. 9) we expect
mothers to provide today.
You may need to go through this process several times to create a satisfactory
How to Use Direct Quotation
Direct quotation can be used for a variety of reasons, such as:
• To show that an authority supports a point in the thesis
• To present a position or argument to critique or comment on
• To include especially moving or historically significant language

To present a particularly well-stated passage whose meaning would be lost
or changed if paraphrased or summarized
However, students should not rely too heavily on direct quotation. Most of the ideas and
text in their thesis should be in their own words. Below are some guidelines to follow
when using direct quotations.
Introducing Quotations
One of your jobs as a writer is to guide your reader through your text. Do not simply
drop quotations into your thesis and leave it to the reader to make connections.
Integrating a quotation into your text usually involves two elements:

A signal that a quotation is coming—generally the author’s name and/or a
reference to the work
An assertion that indicates the relationship of the quotation to your text
Often both the signal and the assertion appear in a single introductory statement, as in
the example below. Notice how a transitional phrase also serves to connect the
quotation smoothly to the introductory statement.
Ross (1993), in her study of poor and working-class mothers in London from
1870-1918 [signal], makes it clear that economic status to a large extent
determined the meaning of motherhood [assertion]. Among this population
[connection], ‘To mother was to work for and organize household subsistence’
(p. 9).
The signal can also come after the assertion, again with a connecting word or phrase:
Illness was rarely a routine matter in the nineteenth century [assertion]. As
[connection] Ross observes [signal], ‘Maternal thinking about children’s health
revolved around the possibility of a child’s maiming or death’ (p. 166).
Formatting Quotations
Incorporate short direct prose quotations into the text of your thesis and enclose them in
double quotation marks, as in the examples above. Begin longer quotations (2 lines or
more) on a new line and indent the entire quotation (i.e., put in block form), with no
quotation marks at beginning or end, as in the quoted passage
Punctuation with Quotation Marks
1. Parenthetical citations. With short quotations, place citations outside of closing
quotation marks, followed by sentence punctuation (period, question mark, comma,
semi-colon, colon):
Menand (2002) characterizes language as ‘a social weapon’ (p. 115).
2. Commas and periods. Place inside closing quotation marks when no parenthetical
citation follows:
Hertzberg (2002) notes that ‘treating the Constitution as imperfect is not new,’
but because of Dahl’s credentials, his ‘apostasy merits attention’ (p. 85).
3. Question marks and exclamation points. Place inside closing quotation marks if the
quotation is a question/exclamation:
Menand (2001) acknowledges that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is ‘a
classic of the language,’ but he asks, ‘Is it a dead classic?’ (p. 114). [Note that a
period still follows the closing parenthesis.]
Place outside of closing quotation marks if the entire sentence containing the quotation
is a question or exclamation:
How many students actually read the guide to find out what is meant by
‘academic misconduct’?
4. Quotations within quotations. Use double quotation marks for the embedded
According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl gives the U. S. Constitution ‘bad marks in
‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus’’’ (p. 90). [The phrases
‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus’ are already in quotation
marks in Dahl’s sentence.]
Faculty of Economics and Management
Wielokulturowość w Europie Zachodniej: studia przypadków Austrii, Niemiec i
Zjednoczonego Królestwa Wielkiej Brytanii
MA International Relations
Student Number: 40928
Master Thesis
Dr. Iryna Polets
Warsaw 2018
This work has not previously been accepted in substance for any degree and is not being
concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree.
I, being aware of all the applicable consequences, declare that the submitted dissertation,
titled in English and Polish, is the result of my own work and research.
Additionally, I declare that the dissertation does not infringe on any copyrights in accordance
with the act on copyright and neighboring rights, nor does it infringe on any personal rights as
protected by civil law.
I also declare that the submitted work does not contain data and information obtained by me
in a forbidden manner.
I also confirm that the submitted dissertation is identical with the attached electronic version
of it.
Multiculturalism is a unique capacity of multiple axiological features and moral values reflected
in approach to the notion of self-determination and attitude towards people with different
cultural background. It is the phenomenon observed from the notion of equality with respect to
the doctrine on Human Rights to be exercised among all people notwithstanding cultural and
ethnical background. This work is to present the problematics of European multiculturalism in
the light of recent events.
Nowadays, the phenomenon of Multiculturalism in Western Europe is associated with
populist speculations over refugee crisis observed from axiological assumptions dedicated to
the theory of ethnocentrism. The purpose of this study is to investigate the essence of this
contradiction terms of public space sharing in order to prove that populist speculations and
propaganda lead to the rise of nationalism and, consequently, appears to be the main challenge
for Western social democracy. If nationalists impose their views on European politics of
recognition it will influence not only identity politics but the whole political, social and cultural
agenda within Western Europe.
Social integration can be hypothetically achieved by unidimensional model of acculturation
with an emphasis on superiority of local sociocultural tradition on the one hand, and by the
multidimensional assimilation model without sacrificing origin dynamics for the sake of
predominance of local one. Therefore, research question is preconditions for further
harmonious assimilation and coexistence of diverse cultures within European public space.
Furthermore, it goes far beyond the surface standpoint and requires more profound analytical
framework of political spectrum that explains and, to certain extent, adjusts the recent trend of
the rise of nationalism. Even though, it is to present the paradox of self-determination followed
by the result of misinterpreting the problem of diversity. When it comes to assimilation and
pluralism, after all, it can’t be constrained by unidimensional model and needs multiplicity.
Table of Contents
Statement of Originality…………………………………………………………………..……2
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………4
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….5
1.1. Literature Review…………………………………………………………………….7
1.2. Methodology………………………………………………………………………………13
2. Conceptual framework of the theory……………………………………………………….17
2.1. Multiculturalist terminology…………………………………………………………….17
2.2. Problematics of European multiculturalism…………………………………………22
2.3. Criticism of European multiculturalism……………………………………………..25
2.4. History of Immigration into Europe…………………………………………………29
3. Analytical Overview of Refugee Crisis…………………………………………………..31
3.1. Refugees Crisis and German Migrant Policy ………………………………………..32
3.2. European Migrant Crisis and Austrian Identity Politics………………………………36
3.3. Refugee Crisis and post-Brexit multiculturalism in UK ……………………………38
4. The politics of recognition and assimilation…………………..…………………………42
4.1. Case of Germany……………………………………………………………………44
4.2. Case of Austria………………………………………………………………………50
4.3. Case of UK………………………………………………………………………….56
5. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….63
6. Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………66
1. Introduction
New millennium is characterized mainly by Information Technologies, Globalization and
Outsourcing trends within international environment as a platform for pluralist commonwealth.
Nowadays, non-state actors represented by transnational corporations have increased influence
on Global Affairs changing, in such a way, the nature of International Relations and
International Political Economy. Developing countries follow the Western World and
international communications and collaborations are evidently intensifying. ‘Technological
advancement and the quantum leap in global trade had enabled many countries to enter an era
of cultural diversity where intergroup contact with members of another ethno-cultural
community is the norm rather than the exception.’ (Leonga, Liu 2013) Twenty First century
person has access to enormous amount of information and opportunities. He or she is free to
follow his or her personal reasoning in such questions like self-determination, culture, religion,
traditions, customs, lifestyle, etc. Therefore, the concept of Global Citizenship, which was
primarily created and developed by Emmanuel Kant, finds a new reflection in contemporary
political philosophy due to specificity of globalized reality. The main idea of the concept is
similar to natural law and universality of human rights, while recognition depends on a way
someone sees himself or herself and his or her place in the world. Moreover, the uniqueness of
Western Civilization is being shaped by other phenomenon coming with Globalization –
Doctrine on Multiculturalism is interconnected with a number of other theories and study
fields such as Sociology, Political Philosophy, Culturology, Migrant Policy and basically means
the dialog amongst different ethnic groups and representatives of different sociocultural
background within certain area as well as globally to be negotiated and maintained in
harmonious way. Although, there are various forms of the definition of this phenomenon, it is
viewed as both political and social concern in given work. Thus, it can be defined as Identity
Politics or Politics of Difference, what is actually the state’s attitude towards minority groups.
It does not only include policies of maintenance of cultural pluralism and promoting equal
respect to all existed cultures in society, but also policies in which minorities are recognized by
state as representatives of certain ethnic or religious group they belong to even despite the fact
of discriminative element that very often might take place in such a case. ‘Multiculturalism has
been, from the very early days, a very ambiguous and therefore inevitably controversial
concept,’ – said Alessandro Silg in the introduction of European multiculturalism revisited.
‘Multiculturalism has never been immune to criticism or opposition, but it hits the media
headlines and climbed the agendas of governments (indeed, in some countries, became an
electoral issue) – after 9 /11 and the bombings in Madrid and London, in the Netherlands after
the assassination of Van Gogh, and in Denmark following the Jyllands-Posten cartoon affair.
These events influenced public opinion in most European countries, where in the meantime
doubts about the country’s assimilation approach had grown stronger.’(Silg 2010)
Multiculturalism is appeared to be even more controversial topic of political debate due to
strong criticism by ethnocentrism theorists it now faces. It objectifies topicality and academic
importance of chosen issue as of 2018. Refugee Crisis is taken as an independent variable
triggering new tendency of this recent criticism and of reawakening of Protectionism and Far
Right Politics in Western World, especially in Western Europe. Proposal is to analyze issue
from both liberal and conservative perspectives in order to conceptualize Post-Multicultural
Identity Politics in Western World. The main idea is observed from problematics of Identity
Politics, in particular, conflict of society and community; whereas, co-existence of multicultural
identities needs social, political and economic preconditions to be structured, organized and
maintained in appropriate way to secure public space and to prevent moral crisis, discrimination
and neo-nationalism itself. It is subjectively presumed that arising political influence of
Nationalism, being the consequence of speculations over Refugee Crisis, brings
authoritarianism into Western society. Following this reasoning line, Far Right politics directly
threatens Western Social Democracy. Although, Nationalist’s assumption of securitization of
Refugee Crisis is to be refuted, conservative argumentation and extreme phase of current
Migrant Policy problem is also taken into consideration. Therefore, hypothesis follows the
controversial nature of problematics: harmonic co-existence of multicultural identities either
demands predominant national interest with unidimensional model of integration or
superordinate national identity can tolerate heterogeneous dimension of acculturation without
having sacrifice the origin identity dynamics.
Independent variable is contextually linked with hypothesis and requires more profound
analysis in order to justify conditions under which cultural diversity can be reconsidered. Rightwing populism’s interpretation of Refugee Crisis as a failure of Multiculturalism is seen as an
attempt to take advantage of situation sacrificing liberty for the sake of so-called conservatism,
which is, indeed, authoritarianism, in order to obtain more political power instead of providing
some practical contribution to the issue.
1.1. Literature review
Globalization strongly shapes post-modern reality changing not only sociocultural and
economic traditions but academic trends as well. Contemporary doctrines on International
Relations, Political Science and Post-modern Political Philosophy have been facing new
challenges due to the phenomenon of global multinational interconnectedness that had taken
place in twenty first century even to a greater extent. Globalized world has being built up on
new principles of the politics of place sharing with respect to human rights and individualism.
This phenomenon found the support of neo-liberal thought and criticism by conservative
stratum respectively. Multiculturalism, in its turn, appears to be the most disputable field of
study in such a context. Kenan Malik (2006) in his The Failures of Multiculturalism defines the
term multicultural as ‘the policies necessary to manage diverse society.’ According to him, the
term ‘has come to embody both a description of the lived experience of diversity and a
prescription for the management of such diversity.’ Political controversy surrounding this study
discourse causes different interpretations of our issue. Existed dimensions are represented by
academic left and right as well as political debate, which is divided in the same way
respectively. Therefore, the proposal is to analyze the degree to which multiculturalism should
be reconsidered from both perspectives in order to find some kind of consensus. Although, far
right arguments tend to be speculative, its logic still makes some sense from the perspective of
security and national interest. If two people have different visions of the same thing, than,
perhaps, the truth is supposed to be somewhere in the middle.
The following review of literature is based on main ideas observed from findings of
mainstream scholars. It is to present academic background of study, major conceptions and
common trends in the field in general as well as in context of narrower topic related directly to
the study itself. The main purpose is to distinguish the logical sequence of reasoning line in
order to justify the importance of study and its topicality. Although, the main content is to
explain current agenda in academic circles, some groups of studies are worth mentioning in
support of the relevance of hypothesis. Moreover, certain amount of academic pieces we are
going to refer to contributes to the pattern of terminology and exact definitions that are crucial
in the study. The definitions of ethnopolitics, ethnocentrism, identity politics, pluralism,
xenophobia, migration and refugee crisis are of particular interest.
As of ethnopolitics, J. lshiyama and M. Breuning (1998) provide very clear explanation of
this notion in their Ethnopolitics in the New Europe. They use the term ‘to broadly describe the
politics among ethnic entities’ and to establish ‘congruence’ between culture and politics,
whereas, ‘nationalism is state of mind in which supreme loyalty of individual is felt to be due
to the nation state’. However, from their point of view, ethnopolitical parties are not necessarily
nationalist parties, but they are very often though. According to Don Ellis, professor of
Communication in University of Hartford, ‘conflict between two or more groups is termed
“ethnopolitical” when ethnicity and religion are highly implicated in the ongoing state of
hostility’ (2014). He stresses in his Ethnopolitical Conflict that ‘these are intergroup conflicts
where group member attitudes, stereotypes, and forms of communication reflect the
ethnopolitical context’. The main essence of the conflict is contradiction between cultural
pluralism and ethnocentrism or nationalism in approach to identity politics. William R. Hazard
and Madelon Stent in their Cultural Pluralism and Schooling: Some Preliminary Observations
define it as ‘a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique
cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided
they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society’(1973). Cultural pluralism has
similar but not the same meaning as multiculturalism. Antonia Pantoja, Wilhelmina Perry and
Barbara Blourock in their Towards the Development of Theory: Cultural Pluralism Redefined
provide us with very clear explanation of this difference. ‘Multiculturalism lacks the
requirement of a dominant culture. If the dominant culture is weakened, societies can easily
pass from cultural pluralism into multiculturalism without any intentional steps being taken by
that society. If communities function separately from each other, or compete with one another,
they are not considered culturally pluralistic’ (1973). This distinction is the key in terms of
hypothesis. With the passage of analysis, it would be possible to find out which model of
assimilation can be better in the countries of the world. Other words, is it necessary to have
predominant national interest so that to finally equalize cultural pluralism to multiculturalism
or is it possible to avoid particularism focusing more on global universal values commonly
shared among all human beings equally.
Sophie Watson with her Making Multiculturalism ‘contributed to a now well-established and
important set of literatures within sociology, geography, cultural studies and other disciplines,
which extend and expand our understandings of multiculturalism, intercultural conviviality and
cosmopolitanism’ (2017). From her point of view, ‘in a world where these are under severe
threat from right-wing currents and politics across the globe, it is increasingly important that
academics take such endeavours seriously.’ (Watson 2017)
Research shows that issue is very controversial. One common finding is the division between
two opposite perspectives. On the one hand, multiculturalism can be seen as cultural diversity
– natural phase of human interactions. By this it is meant that all foundational principles of
liberal thought takes beginning from basic rights and freedoms to be exercised universally
among all human beings equally, wherewith equality of all people is considered to be the key
objective. ‘The liberal is in theory committed to equal respect for persons’, Bhikhu Parekh
argues in his Rethinking multiculturalism: Cultural diversity and political theory. ‘Since human
beings are culturally embedded, respect for them entails respect for their cultures and ways of
life’ (2006). This was the basis for the notion of democracy and human rights. That is why
study cases are the democratic multicultural states. On the other hand, research shows that
recent tendency of re-awakening of nationalism is the consequence of populist speculations
over refugee crisis. Filip Milačić & Ivan Vuković (2017) underlines the same tendency in their
The Rise of the Politics of National Identity: New Evidence from Western Europe. They state
that ‘numerous West European democracies are witnessing unprecedented levels of electoral
support for the populist radical right parties’. Austria and Germany are ones of those. Moreover,
they argue ‘that these countries’ electorates already came to be politically divided over
immigration to the extent that one could talk about the emergence of a new cleavage—ethnic
vs. civic citizenship’. Paul Taggart in his New populist parties in Western Europe also writes
about success of nationalist parties even despite the fact of that not being so evident in 1995,
when his work has been published. He tries to differentiate ‘new populism’ from ‘neo-fascism’.
According to Paul Taggart, ‘the reason many observers conflate the New Populism with
neo-fascism is that they both lie somewhere on the right of the political spectrum’
(1995). Taggart really predicted the further dimension of development of this particular political
spectrum. What he has called ‘New Populism’ is exactly what now challenges multicultural
values in Europe. As a result, this has negative impact on people’s attitude towards
multiculturalism, who either idealize the notion or demonize it. Kenan Malik also contributes
greatly with profound research he had done mentioning the roots of dispute we are facing now.
Both racists and multiculturalists, the French philosopher Alain Finkielkraut
observes, draw on similar Romantic ideas of culture that go back largely to
the work of eighteenth-century German philosopher Johann Gottfreid Herder
(1744-1803). Herder rejected the Enlightenment idea that reality was ordered
in terms of universal, timeless, objective, unalterable laws that rational
investigation could discover. He maintained, rather, that every activity,
situation, historical period or civilization possessed a unique character. What
made each people or nation – or Volk- unique was its Kultur: its particular
language, literature, history and modes of living. The unique nature of
each Volk was expressed through its Volksgeist – the unchanging spirit of a
people refined through history. Every culture was authentic in its own terms,
each adapted to its local environment. Today, Finkielkraut suggests, Herder’s
romanticism inspires ‘at the same time…unyielding celebrations of ethnic
identity and expressions of respect for foreigners, aggressive outbursts by
xenophobes and generous pronouncements by xenophiles.’ The two sides
have ‘conflicting credos but the same vision of the world’. (Malik 2006)
The main tendency of academic dispute over multiculturalism is self-determination
appearing to be the reason for struggle between national and multinational identities. Therefore,
it is possible to divide all existed academic pieces, books, theories and ways of thinking into
the two main group of studies with totally opposed perspectives. As far as major trends
regarding multiculturalism are concerned, this is relatively new topic synchronous with
globalization starting with the end of Iron Curtain. Nevertheless, there is huge amount of written
literature dedicated to this topic with various contexts included. So, chosen literature is
specified by the criterions required for original methodology being successfully applied within
analytical framework of study. Although the work concentrates on 2014-2017 as the main time
frames within the case studies of the United Kingdom, Germany and Austria, some historical
and legal background as well as definitions of the main concepts and notions interconnected
with the issue itself are required for the sake of full adequacy of presented way of thinking. For
the reason of that, reviewed literature is also divided with respect to semantic load into
additional and specific patterns.
Additional pattern is represented by set of sources, mainly edited books, which provide
general information, main points and historical background. It provokes the further specific
dimension observed from academic background. Specific pattern of reviewed literature is the
other set of sources represented by mainly scientific articles and essays that address the
narrower topic. Specific pattern is also subdivided with respect to concrete themes, such as:
assimilation, comparison of different local attitudes towards minority groups, social and
cultural preconditions challenging the notion of multiculturalism in the United Kingdom,
Austria and Germany respectively, etc. As far as additional pattern of reviewed literature is
generally concerned, the European perception of multiculturalism differs from that of the
United States. U.S. scholars emphasize the issue of cultural diversity. American scholars tend
to separate axiological assumptions from political ones. What matters is the legitimacy of
migration. European scholars put more accent on immigration within multiculturalism,
whereas, it is separate field in the United States. That is why it is much more controversial in
context of Europe, whereas, not separating security studies and migrant policies from
multiculturalism might be the weakness of academia. Multiculturalism must take its exact
disciplinary place not to be wrongly interpreted or confused due to speculations over refugee
crisis and populist propaganda.
Finally, the most specific pattern consists of the group of sources dedicated to study cases
and to the process of assimilation. Mariya Aleksynska & Yann Algan (2010), for instance
provide very clear information concerning the process of assimilation and acculturation in their
Assimilation and Integration of Immigrants in Europe. Panikos Panayi’s (2004) The Evolution
of Multiculturalism in Britain and Germany: An Historical Survey is exactly the case in point.
Bernhard Perchinig (2005) in his ‘Migration studies in Austria: research at the margins?’
explains ‘national paradigms of migration research, how migration reflected as a part of the
changes in social-structural development, the role of the organizational and funding structure.’
His study is very good example of synthesized approach with respect to mutual
interconnectedness of politics and academia. ‘This study did not only mark the beginning of
migration research but also stands for the beginning of a tradition of highly politicized
research challenging governmental migration policies.’(Perchinig 2005)
Scholars make so much effort to classify the types of migrants but fail to recognize the
genuine nature of the problem, which goes far beyond politics and economics and touches upon
eternal philosophical rhetoric. The global failure of multiculturalism would create the world
looks like antiutopian version of reality. Moreover, it would be the reason for weakened
freedoms and strengthened constraints in every aspect of life. Therefore, the primary aim of the
work is to underline that multiculturalism is must on the global scale as well as locally. It should
be presented in new light promoting moral values and equality. Therefore, it should be
reconsidered on academic level, in terms of education in particular, on social and cultural levels,
on the level of the nation state as well as on political level in terms of both domestic and
international affairs.
1.2. Methodology section
Research question is the role and impact of assimilation model and its influence on effectivity
of the whole process of acculturation. Discovering the conditions under which would be
possible to have harmonious co-existence of diverse cultures within certain territory is the key
approach within analytical framework of multiculturalism and place sharing. The notion of
public space includes the necessity of sharing the same universal multicultural values. These
values have no connection with religion, ethnicity, traditions or customs of any nation state,
etc. Multicenter complex of basic objective narratives on universal morality determines the
dimension of acculturation. The process of acculturation would be more effective when the
model variable is implemented with respect to specific socio cultural tradition of particular
territory. The correlation between powers and rights of both the individual and the state towards
each other internally and externally is central to the dialog of given discourse. Limits of rights
and freedoms advocated by the principles of national interest and general will provoke crisis of
individualism. Thus, state dictates the limit of individual right as far as it is contradictory to
common national perception. This is the common tendency of conservative argumentation
reflects the features inherent to authoritarianism, wherewith populism and propaganda
influence masses capturing all the attention on social constraints and stereotypes. Literally, any
kind of discrimination, neither on individual nor on national level, can be advocated by
unwillingness of place sharing on the grounds of diversity.
Methodology of study is based on subjective assumption observed from analysis of already
existed knowledge. Thus, original methods would be complementary ones to those of academic
mainstream. As far as the major contributions to multiculturalism had been already defined in
literature review, there are few trends, such as different approaches towards migration in the
European Union and in the U.S., two opposite opinions regarding European multiculturalism,
refugee crisis and radicalism as a valuable circumstances challenging the foundations of
multicultural values. Such trends explain the sequence of hypothetical paradigm.
Methodological orientation touches upon the variety of factors influencing the structure of
analytical framework. The proposal is to accept multiculturalism’s specific interdisciplinary
place along with the other fields of political and social science and the necessity of it to be
reconsidered due to the specificity of current agenda regarding study cases and relevant
problematics. It is social conflict on the ground of cultural diversity in European public space
on both national and individual levels. State intervention is not only required in cases of security
and regulations of borders. State needs to promote facilities for assimilation and supervise the
whole process. Factors that influence local attitude towards minority groups reflect the essence
of problematics. All three case studies are adequately similar in terms of given context. As long
as radicalism exists and has being accepted by certain individuals by both sides, there will be
also a contradiction of Multiculturalism and Nationalism. However, it does not mean that it is
a good thing to promote Xenophobia and Racism using derogatory terms against people or
deprive them from their basic human rights on the grounds of intolerance towards certain
ethnicity, religion or ideology. ‘The referendum in Britain on the EU, and the ways in which
migration was deployed by the leave campaign as a politics of fear and xenophobia is a case in
point’. (Watson 2016) Furthermore, it has never happened before during parliamentary
elections in such a liberal countries like Germany and Austria, right-wing populist and national
conservative parties got so many votes. Alternative for Germany got ninety-four sits in
Bundestag, the Freedom Party of Austria in its turn – fifty-one sits in Austrian Parliament, while
the majority was taken by central-right conservatives – Austrian People’s Party.
All things considered, multiculturalist theorists try to confront pessimistic narratives of
prevailing racism, ‘dystopia, fear of strangers, dissonance, hopelessness and urban anxiety have
sought to mobilize different and less pessimistic accounts of co-existence of different others in
the city, drawing on a rich terrain of theoretical work, as well as empirical studies to support
their claims. In this vein, discourses of everyday multiculturalism’ (Wise & Velayutham 2009),
cosmopolitanism (Noble 2013), transcultural drift, cultural diversity and politics of difference
have been enunciated. Each one stands for various milieus of public space that is not as
separated or ‘segregated on racial/ethnic grounds as some politicians, the media and also
theorists would have us believe.’(Watson 2016) Right-wing populism is mainly oriented on
non-educated or weakly educated, very often, young people who face the problem of
employment. Nationalist propaganda exaggerates the agenda of cultural conflict, putting all
blame on immigrants and people of different ethnicity or skin color, which aggravates the
problem and leads to radicalism and violence on the streets as a result. ‘This is not simply an
academic endeavour or gesture, rather, for many it is seen as a political strategy to reframe and
refute negative discourses which in part construct the very world that they aim to describe. Fear
breeds fear, and anxieties breed anxieties, as it were, with often-disastrous effects: the unknown
stranger becomes the cause of all evils.’ (Kristeva 1991) Self-determination is the issue of
individualism and it finds obstacles and constraints only within discourse of given problematics.
Given work underlines the importance of expected results for the notions of multiculturalism
and identity politics to address not only issue of equality and co-existence of multinational
identities but also social aspect of interaction, assimilation and conditions under which it could
have been done in order to secure public space from racism and xenophobia. Although,
hypothesis requires more profound analysis before having some concrete conclusion to be
represented, it is already possible to indicate multidimensional model of acculturation; but preconditions of its maintenance are still to be explored and proven.
2. Conceptual framework of the theory
Although, the theory of multiculturalism is relatively new field of study and research area, there
are numerous interpretations and definitions of this theory. Promoted by mainly neoliberal
theorists and implemented in social democracies since globalization, the notion of
multiculturalism has been spreading overwhelmingly. For the reason of this, the theory finds
both supporters and criticists. Given study defines multiculturalism as the phenomenon resulted
by globalization and outsourcing trends, which tends to advocate the principles of place sharing
with respect to cultural diversity in public space and to promote relative identity politics
excluding any sort of discrimination. The phenomenon of multiculturalism as neoliberal
ideological set of values and identity politics accepted in advanced countries is based on the
socio democratic principles. From the point of view of liberalism as political theory and
analytical framework, multiculturalism is logical and rational outcome of globalized era. On
the contrary, from the perception of nationalism as social ideology and from the realist point of
view, multiculturalism has failed. Moreover, the theory of multiculturalism consists of the
neoliberal moral code and reflects the set of values that are crucial for individual freedoms,
human rights, mutual respect and tolerance. ‘Multiculturalism is the only conceptual framework
that is capable of making sense of the contradictions of contemporary race practice, where
racism is simultaneously rejected and reproduced.’ (Pitcher 2009)
2.1. Multiculturalist Terminology
The most known definition of multiculturalism is ‘the presence of, or support for the presence
of, several distinct cultural or ethnic groups within a society’ (Oxford Dictionary n.d.). So that
it means cultural diversity to be the concern of identity politics towards sharing public space
among people of different ethnic, cultural or religious background. The notion of public space,
in such a context, refers to the interconnectedness of the concept of place sharing and identity
politics. Interconnectedness of these notions explain ideological hierarchy of moral principles
that constitute the basis for legal policies. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to have
freedom of different public opinions to be discussed openly. Furthermore, it includes an
understanding of the notion of self-determined identities constituting multiple mosaics of
cultural diversity within public space secured by civil society sharing democratic values. ‘Since
identity is a heavily theorized academic concept, treatments of identity have moved in recent
years, going from conceptualizing it as an essentialist preexisting construct that drives social
interaction, to postmodern accounts which treat it as more of a fluid and hybrid construct that
is constituted through discourse’ (Benwell and Stokoe 2006). That goes far beyond national
identity concerns including multinational societal norms universally implemented in developed
world. ‘Although multiculturalism is overtly inclusive, what came through the views expressed
were traces of implicit exclusionary discourse.’ (Knight 2008)
Given perception of pluralist theory aims to explore the genuine essence of the symptoms
caused by deeper problematical narrative. Therefore, given conceptual framework of
multiculturalism seems to surface complementary standpoint to the notion of society and public
space form the perspectives of universalism, and, as occurred, post structuralism respectively.
So that it appears to be impossible to identify specific field, while different perspectives are
required to provoke objective critical feedback due to observations from the combination of
different multidisciplinary fields of social, cultural and political studies. Objectiveness of
multiculturalist critique is based on multiple measurement of neoliberal, post structural and
universalist opinions on every cultural, social and political aspects relatively to study fields that
constitute contemporary perception of multidisciplinary theory of the phenomenon of
multiculturalism. Multiple framework configures all the fragments it consists of in order to
recognize pattern consistency and scientific novelty aiming to analyze arrangement procedures
required for maintaining multicultural and secure conditions within public space. The notion of
the limits of universalism is relatively modern concept of analyzing the essence of limitation to
appropriate degree without sacrificing individualism. From the perspective of post
structuralism, the theory of recognition is the best approach towards understanding the essence
of axiology. The limitation is measured by the objective peripheries observed from most
commonly accepted set of moral principles and values.
The definition of the theory of multiculturalism ant it’s conceptual framework is the first
segment influencing the potential dimension of hypothetical assumption to be explored. The
second one is observed from the problematics of European identity politics and social worries.
The next stage is the understanding of the essence of cultural assimilation and the variety of
integration models with respect to controversial nature of this constant contradiction between
left and right. Other significantly important consideration is that populism in context of given
study does not refer only to far right. It refers to wrong interpretation and imposition of certain
idea opposite to the right of individual freedom. Study cases are to present the evidence of
radical manifestations and propaganda in Western Europe, the territory being the most desired
destination point for the people from developing countries all over the world because of values
that appear to be the reason for this territory to be so desired to get into. Unfortunately, not all
the immigrants try to associate themselves as those sharing these values. Even though,
multicultural values tend to constitute the circumstances in which it might be possible for
immigrants to be accepted, after all. Modern way of thinking excludes an obsession over
religious constraints and attachments towards original tradition to be prevailed in comparison
to the variety of others. Thus, the study of secularism also contributes to this issue. Moreover,
there are example of immigrants’ successful assimilation contributory to local social
environment. Theoretical framework of multiculturalism contrasts to the theory of
ethnocentrism and conservatism. It also embraces all the legal explanations of migration and
migrant policies and various definitions required in order to understand the phenomenon of
multiculturalism globally as well as in Western Europe, in particular.
Given study supports the neoliberal idea of secularism and, consequently, multiculturalism
as it stands for reconsidering the politics of place sharing with discrimination not to be accepted.
However, it includes the point of the dynamics of identity origin in terms of the territory this
origin belongs to. The fundamental difference between left and right wing is that it is very
unlikely for even radical left to be really radical or unidirectional in a sense of what is literally
far right radicalism. However, left wing extremism exists as well and is mainly based on
Marxist theories aiming to overthrow conservative and capitalist systems. It is subjectively
presumed that radicalism, either far right or far left has more in common than differ. By this it
is basically meant that radical left wing liberals and anti-fascists are not liberals anymore. If so,
they can no longer stand …

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